WSEAS Transactions on Communications

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Print ISSN: 1109-2742
E-ISSN: 2224-2864

Volume 14, 2015

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of WSEAS Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

Volume 14, 2015

Title of the Paper: Outage Probability and Symbol Error Rate Analysis of MIMO-MRC with Estimation Error, Feedback Delay and Co-Channel Interference

Authors: Sudakar Singh Chauhan, Sanjay Kumar

Abstract: This correspondence propose the outage probability and symbol error rate (SER) performance of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) maximum ratio combining (MRC) in the existence of co-channel interferences (CCIs) with channel estimation error (CEE) and feedback delay (FD). In general, we derive the exact closed-form expressions for the statistical properties of the signal-to-noise-plus-interference ratio (SINR), the outage probability of the SINR and SER of M-ary constellation. Our outcome indicates that the system performance enhances with the increment of number of transceiver antenna, however deteriorates with the harshness of CEE, FD and CCIs.

Keywords: Channel estimation error (CEE), co-channel interference (CCI), maximum ratio combining (MRC), multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, outage probability, symbol error rate (SER)

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #59, pp. 506-511

Title of the Paper: Achievable Unified Performance Analysis of Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes with Antenna Selection over Correlated Rayleigh Fading Channels

Authors: Sudakar Singh Chauhan, Sanjay Kumar

Abstract: In this paper we evaluated the performance of orthogonal space-time block codes with transmit antenna selection (TAS/OSTBCs) for frequency-flat correlated Rayleigh fading channels. By effective use of the probability density function (pdf), the bit error probability (BEP) for binary phase shift keying (BPSK) and M-ary Quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) is derived first. Further we evaluated the ergodic capacity and outage probability over correlated Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results illustrate the impact of fading correlation on the BEP, channel capacity and outage probability.

Keywords: Antenna selection, bit error probability (BEP), ergodic capacity, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), outage probability, orthogonal space-time block codes (OSTBCs)

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #58, pp. 499-505

Title of the Paper: Outage Performance of Cognitive AF Relaying Networks over generalized η-μ Fading Channels

Authors: Jing Yang, Lei Chen, Chunxiao Li, Kostas P. Peppas, P. Takis Mathiopoulos

Abstract: In this paper, a dual-hop cognitive amplify-and-forward (AF) relay network subject to independent nonidentically distributed (i.n.i.d.) η-μ fading channels is investigated. In the considered network, secondary users (SUs) including one secondary user source (SU-S) and one secondary user relay (SU-R) are allowed to share the same spectral resources with the primary user (PU) simultaneously under the premise that the quality of service (QoS) of PU can be guaranteed. In order to guarantee the QoS of PU, the maximum interference power limit is considered to constraint the transmit powers at SU-S and SU-R. For integer-valued fading parameters, a closedform lower bound for the outage probability (OP) of the considered networks is obtained, whereas the lower bound in integral form for the OP is derived for arbitrary-valued fading parameters. For the special case of the generalized η-μ fading channels, such as Nakagami-m fading channels, the analytical results become the previous published results. In order to obtain further insights on the OP performance, asymptotic expressions for the OP at high SNRs are derived. From the asymptotic results, we also reveal that the diversity gain of the secondary network is only determined by the fading parameters of the secondary network, whereas the primary network only affects the coding gain. Finally, simulation confirms the correctness of our analysis.

Keywords: Outage probability (OP), amplify-and-forward (AF), cognitive relaying networks (CRN), η-μ fading, spectrum sharing

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #57, pp. 491-498

Title of the Paper: Two New Algorithms of Signal Processing in the Communication System with Information Feedback

Authors: Vladimir Kazakov, Francisco Tejeda

Abstract: The signal processing in the receivers of both channels is carried out with elementary signals. The direct channel receiver has memory. The threshold control in the feedback channel receiver is the main goal of the present article. The first algorithm on the criterion of minimum error probability without any restriction is investigated. The result is the set of thresholds changed in the repetitions. The second algorithm is investigated when the consumption of energy is introduced. This problem is solved on the method of the conditional optimization. Once again, the set of thresholds is obtained. The effectiveness of the mentioned two new algorithms is compared with the simple algorithm, when thresholds do not change with the number of repetition.

Keywords: Communication system with information feedback, error probability

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #56, pp. 483-490

Title of the Paper: Iterative Doppler Shift Estimation in Radio Propagation

Authors: Amirhossein Fereidountabar, Gian Carlo Cardarilli

Abstract: This paper analyzes the bias of a Doppler shift estimator based on adaptive autocorrelation function (ACF) computations and proposes a process for reduction the bias of estimation at high speed movements. Furthermore, a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimator is proposed according to the varying bias in the iterations, where the estimates of the Doppler shift in the first and the final stages of iteration are merged to construct a bias ratio related to the SNR. Simulations show the proposed algorithm achieves accurate estimation within a wide range of velocities and SNRs.

Keywords: Iterative Estimation, Signal to Noise Ratio, Doppler Shift, High Vehicle Speed, Radio Propagations, High Speed Approximation

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #55, pp. 477-482

Title of the Paper: Signaling Technique Using Inverse Exponential Function for High-Speed On-Chip Interconnects

Authors: Bretislav Sevcik, Lubomir Brancik

Abstract: In modern digital systems where advanced miniaturization is used, on-chip interconnects are becoming more incompatible with existing signaling methods to overcome signal distortion caused by natural low-pass effect of transmission lines. Current requirements for signal pre-emphasis driver at transceiver side are logically similar to the general requirements for low-power voltage digital systems. High efficiency of signal pre-emphasis together with a minimum voltage swing during signal emphasizing and still lower power dissipation are the main features of modern signaling methods. In this paper a novel pulse shaping method based on the use of an inverse exponential function that has smaller distortion than conventional raised-cosine pulse is introduced together with advanced channel modeling. Thus, a robust pulse pre-emphasis method using combination of amplitude emphasis and time-domain emphasis is proposed. Analysis clearly shows that proposed pulse shaping method due to the spectral efficiency can increase the transmission bandwidth of low cost wire channel.

Keywords: pre-emphasis, high-speed interconnects, raised-cosine, exponential function, transmission

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #54, pp. 470-476

Title of the Paper: Modeling the ICN on Optimal Energy Consumption

Authors: Jie Duan, Xiong Wang, Sheng Wang, Shizhong Xu

Abstract: Information Centric Network (ICN) architecture as a deemed potential solution of network has attracted more and more attentions. Both routing and caching are the fundamental components of ICN. This work studies on the energy efficiency in access network of ICN, which jointly optimizes the routing scheme and caching capacity from the perspective of ISP. The energy consumption model of content distribution for the ICN is formulated with the bandwidth limit. Then the optimization problem is divided into two sub-problems: 1) RSWC, determine the routing paths for objects without considering the cache deployed and 2) RSC, take the cache into consideration to get the final resolution. The corresponding meta-heuristic algorithms are proposed. Simulation results show that our algorithm can get a better result for energy consumption with time complexity O(|Traf|2). Meanwhile, the cache capacity and Zipf parameter are important factors affecting the total cost.

Keywords: ICN (Information-Centric Network), energy consumption, routing scheme, cache placement

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #53, pp. 461-469

Title of the Paper: QOSRGA Protocol Using Non-Disjoint Multiple Routes in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Jiwa Abdullah

Abstract: The problem of QoS Routing for MANET posses several challenges that must be addressed. To select the most optimal route from source to destination, one has to choose from a set of routes with the corresponding quality of connectivity and resources. A rationale for multiple routes is presented. We argued that QoS routing protocol should exploit the rich non-disjoint node connectivity over disjoint paths to improve the source to target(S-T) connectivity lifetime in a MANET. Non-Disjoint Multiple Routes Discovery (NDMRD) protocol is proposed as a method of accumulating these routes, capturing QoS parameters and disseminates them appropriately. QOSRGA (QoS Routing Using GA) is designed to select the best QoS routes based on QoS metrics such as bandwidth, delay and node connectivity index (nci). We outlined the GA process and how its related parameters are chosen. The performances of NDMRD and QOSRGA protocol are presented.

Keywords: MANET, QoS Routing, non-disjoint routes, disjoint routes, multiple routes, Genetic Algorithm, Route Accumulation Latency, RREP duplicates, protocol performance, performance metrics

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #52, pp. 449-460

Title of the Paper: Traffic Engineering Model and Algorithm Based on Bi-Level Programming in Hybrid Software Defined Network

Authors: Zhe Kang, Mingchun Zheng

Abstract: With the rapid development of Internet, the complexity of the network and control difficulty has increased dramatically. For the problem of fossilization network is more and more prominent, SDN (software defined network) arises at the historic moment. Due to SDN controller centralized control and the characteristics of shunt on SDN network equipment, this paper puts forward that part of nodes in the traditional network are changed to SDN nodes. In a hybrid SDN scenario, a new bi-level programming model in view of the virtual network by SDN nodes is proposed for traffic engineering algorithm. Using BLABG algorithm based on sensitivity analysis is to solve the model and to obtain the stability of the equilibrium solution. The traffic engineering model algorithm is more suitable for the network rush hour. It has good adaptability and can adjust the flow in the entire network to load balancing, and significantly reduces the delay effect of the underlying hybrid network and virtual network. Simulation results show that the proposed hybrid network traffic engineering algorithm is superior to the traditional network model.

Keywords: Hybrid SDN, Traffic Engineering, Bi-level Programming, Virtual Network

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #51, pp. 441-448

Title of the Paper: A Comparative Study of Wireless Communication Protocols for Monitoring Vital Signs in Athletes in a Soccer Field

Authors: G. Kiokes, P. Gkonis, E. Zountouridou

Abstract: This paper provides a comprehensive investigation of two wireless protocols performance over short range communications for monitoring vital signs in athletes, mainly during training. Live physiological monitoring of athletes during sports can help to optimize their performance at a specific time in order to maximize athlete efficiency and preventing undesirable events like injuries. ZigBee (over IEEE 802.15.4) is becoming a popular way to create wireless personal area network due to its low power consumption and scalability while Wi-Fi (over IEEE 802.11g) provides the solution for portability with connection of mobility as well. This article presents the evaluation results of system performance using OPNET simulation for the two different wireless standards. The evaluation is concentrated on providing results regarding network values such as end-to-end delay, traffic, average throughput captured from global and objects statistics.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, Performance evaluation, OPNET, Simulation, Throughput

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #50, pp. 433-440

Title of the Paper: The Analysis of Influence on Sensing Performance from the Malicious User for SSDF Attacks in Cognitive Radio

Authors: Hong Du, Shuang Fu, Jie Xu

Abstract: Cognitive radio (CR) can improve the utilization of the spectrum by making use of licensed spectrum. However, the security aspects of cognitive radio networks have garnered little attention. In this paper, we discuss a threat to cognitive radio networks, which we call the spectrum sensing data falsification (SSDF) attack. Specifically, malicious users can always send presence and absence of information for the authorized user, or always report the opposite sensing results. Collaborative sensing performance was deduced under different attack scenarios. Simulation results show that compromise collaborative sensing performance can be obtained when a malicious user always sends "1" with the AND rule, and always sends "0" with the OR rule; In addition, for a malicious user always report the opposite sensing results, q-out-of-N rule was adopted for the cooperative sensing. When the number of malicious users is less, q values should be smaller. On the other hand, from the perspective of make full use of spectrum resources, q values should be larger.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, Spectrum Sensing, SSDF attacks, Attack scenario, malicious user, fusion rule

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #49, pp. 426-432

Title of the Paper: Enhancing Relay-Based Resource Allocation with Adaptive Amplify-and-Forward Relaying

Authors: Olalekan Bello, Hushairi Zen, Al-Khalid Othman, Khairuddin Ab. Hamid

Abstract: This study considers the resource allocation problem in relay networks for downlink transmission where base station (BS) communicates with multiple mobile stations (MSs) via relay stations (RSs) operating in either half-duplex (HD) or full-duplex (FD) mode. Relay gain factors for Amplify and Forward (AF) protocol are studied and a new one called adaptive AF (AAF) relaying is proposed. The AAF scheme attempts to equalize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) across subcarriers, thus providing increased throughputs and proportional fairness in resource distribution. Simulation results of comparative analysis of the AAF relaying scheme and the two basic relaying protocols namely AF and Decode and Forward (DF) are presented in terms of average system throughput, fairness and percentage of call outage under maximum-sum rate (MSR) resource allocation technique. The results show that the AAF scheme achieves superior performances compared to the other ones.

Keywords: amplify-and-forward relays, decode-and-forward relays, full-duplex relaying, loop interference, resource allocation

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #48, pp. 417-425

Title of the Paper: Authentication Protocol for Fingerprint Feature Extraction and IBC in Monitoring Systems

Authors: Changgeng Yu, Liping Lai

Abstract: Authentication methods based on biometric parameters are gaining importance over the years. But they require the storage and transmission security of fingerprint templates to perform this task. In this work an efficient method based on digital fingerprint random encryption IBC is introduced. The process works by user’s fingerprint feature and asymmetric authentication technology to security implementation in monitoring system. Firstly, Fingerprint feature vector was extracted based on the digital fingerprint point extraction method for details feature. Then user identity information had good uniqueness and prevent speculative by the digital fingerprint characteristic vector was encrypted. Finally user identity certificate was generated based on the RSA random fusion method, and the user's identity was determined by random value. The proposed protocol has been modeled and tested with datacenter computer monitoring system (DCRMS) and is found to be safe.

Keywords: Authentication, Random Encryption, Smart Cards, Monitoring Systems

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #47, pp. 409-416

Title of the Paper: A Framework of Features Selection for IPv6 Network Attacks Detection

Authors: Zulkiflee M., M. S. Azmi, S. S. S. Ahmad, S. Sahib, M. K. A. Ghani

Abstract: IPv6 technology introduced to solve problems in the previous IPv4 technology. New threats were discovered due to the exploitation of flaws in IPv6 architecture design. There is a demand to produce new intrusion detection technique for new threats of IPv6 network environment. In this paper, the method of features selection to produce the most significant feature is presented. The objective of this paper is to propose a framework to solve feature selection problem which in this paper the features of IPv6 packet will be the case. The fundamental method of feature selection was improvised to suit with this scenario. A data of IPv6 network attacks was produced by using an IPv6 testbed environment. The SVM and PSO were used in the process of determine the best features to detect IPv6 attacks. In the future, this framework can be applied in other domains which require features selection solution.

Keywords: IPv6, IDS, Feature Selection, SVM, PSO

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #46, pp. 399-408

Title of the Paper: MPDV-HOP:An Improved Localization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Shi Dong, Yingchun Qi

Abstract: In wireless sensor network applications,location information of sensor nodes is critical in the life of the entire network.It is a hot issues to design localization algorithm with higher accuracy and lower cost.In this paper,we propose an improved DV-Hop localization algorithm that improves the localization accuracy.The method is based on the traditional DV-HOP, the average hop distance calculation method is further improved and optimized, in the positioning results are looking for optimization of optimal solution, solution here mainly adopts the latest bat algorithm for optimization problems. The experiment result shows that the more the existing positioning methods,MPDV-HOP can effectively improve the average hop distance estimation,and reduce the positioning error.

Keywords: WSN,DV-HOP, Location Node, Location Error

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #45, pp. 390-398

Title of the Paper: Applying Hybrid Simulated Annealing Algorithm to the Information Sets Search Problem

Authors: Anderson Andrei De Bona, Walter Godoy Júnior

Abstract: In error-correcting codes, due to the complexity and the processing time of maximum likelihood decoding (MLD) techniques are used which has lower complexity and processing time, one of the techniques used is the decoding algorithm for information set (IS). In this paper an exploratory analysis is performed, about the use of the technique by using IS hybrid heuristic of Simulated Annealing with Genetic Algorithm, with in order to perform comparative search on how many IS performance is capable of covering the modified solution compared to the IS in its original form and genetic approach using IS solution because the use of heuristics is that if there is no defined search patterns IS and the use of heuristic is aimed at improving the outcome of IS in its original form, which has close to the maximum likelihood algorithm results, but with lower complexity and processing time, aiming at greater performance.

Keywords: Error correcting code, Soft Decision Algorithm, Information Set Decoding Algorithm, Simulated Annealing, Genetic Algorithm

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #44, pp. 381-389

Title of the Paper: Relay Selection in the FAF Relaying M2M Cooperative Systems

Authors: Lingwei Xu, Hao Zhang, Jingjing Wang, Zhaoqiang Wei, T. Aaron Gulliver

Abstract: The approximate average symbol error probability (ASEP) and outage probability (OP) of the multiple-mobile-relay-based mobile-to-mobile (M2M) cooperative systems with fixed-gain amplify-and-forward (FAF) relaying and relay selection over N-Nakagami fading channels is investigated in this paper. The cumulative density function (CDF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is used to derive the exact ASEP expressions for various modulations. Exact closed-form expressions for OP are also presented. The power allocation problem is formulated for performance optimization. Then the ASEP and OP performance under different conditions is evaluated through numerical simulations to verify the analysis. The simulation results showed that the number of mobile relay nodes, the fading coefficient, the number of cascaded components, the relative geometrical gain, and the power-allocation parameter have an important influence on the ASEP and OP performance.

Keywords: M2M communications, N-Nakagami fading channels, cumulative density function, average symbol error probability, outage probability, relay selection

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #43, pp. 374-380

Title of the Paper: Optimization of a 3D UHF Cubic Antenna with Quasi-Isotropic Radiation Pattern for RFID, WSN and RSN Applications

Authors: Abdelhamid Bou-El-Harmel, Ali Benbassou, Jamal Belkadid

Abstract: In this article, the conceptions of miniaturization of a 3D cubic antenna are presented and discussed. The miniature 3D cubic antenna is designed to operate in the UHF band [902-928 MHz] (centered at 915MHz), produce a quasi-isotropic radiation pattern and have a miniaturized size which gives us a low cost, light weight and a compact size device for RFID, WSN and RSN applications. The size of this antenna was reduced from 30 x 30 x 30 mm3 to 13.48 x 13.48 x 13.48 mm3 that implies a reduction in volume of 90.9279% and a reduction in electrical size of 54.35%. A T-match configuration has been added in order to adapt the input impedance of the antenna to the 50 Ω value. The circuit and radiation parameters simulated by HFSS and CST of the miniaturized antenna show good agreement. The form of the antenna allows to easily envelope the circuits of sensors in its interior, to reconfigure it for many values of impedances, and to operate it in other ISM bands by adjusting their geometric parameters.

Keywords: 3D cubic antenna; Radio Frequency Identification (RFID); Wireless sensor network (WSN); RFID sensor network (RSN); Quasi-isotropic radiation; Dipole antenna; T-match; Liquid crystal polymer LCP

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #42, pp. 365-373

Title of the Paper: Fuzzy Method for Risk Management in Computer Security

Authors: Seyed Mahmood Hashemi, Jingsha He

Abstract: There are many risks for computer systems in network. One goal for developers is designing a management system for threaten risks. However most risks can not be resolved, managing of risks is appropriate approach to empower the system. In this paper, a new method for risk management base on fuzzy logic is presented. Management of risks includes recognition of assets and evaluation of risks for them. In presented method all steps are doing with a fuzzy system. Fuzzy systems allow us to more flexible. Other feature of fuzzy system is the ability to use various opinions. Actually, opinions of stakeholders of computer system are proper resources to manage the risks.

Keywords: risk management, computer security, fuzzy system

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #41, pp. 359-364

Title of the Paper: New Transceiver Scheme for OFDM-Based Broadband Power Line Communications

Authors: Emad S. Hassan

Abstract: Power line communications (PLC), thanks to the widespread availability of power line infrastructure, is considered as a low-cost alternative for data transmission. Power lines, however, remain hostile environments for communication signal propagation. In this paper, we propose a new transceiver scheme for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based broadband power line communications (BPLC) that implements discrete cosine transform (DCT) and continuous phase modulation (CPM). The proposed transceiver combines the advantages of superior bit error rate (BER) performance of DCT-OFDM, in addition to exploiting the channel frequency diversity and the power efficiency of CPM. Then, the paper presents a chaotic interleaving scheme for the proposed transceiver to further improve the BER performance of BPLC. Moreover, it increases the security of BPLC. The BER performance of BPLC with conventional OFDM and with proposed transceiver scheme (DCT-CPM-OFDM) is evaluated by computer simulations. The obtained results show that, the proposed transceiver scheme is robust to channel impairments while maintaining superior BER performance especially when using chaotic interleaving. As a real application of the proposed transceiver, we check the transmissions of images over a real PL channel. Images with high peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) are received and the proposed transceiver is shown to have a good performance over PL channels.

Keywords: BPLC, OFDM, DCT, CPM, Chaotic interleaving, Equalization

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #40, pp. 348-358

Title of the Paper: Intelligent MultiPoint Relays Selection

Authors: Ali Ouacha, Ahmed Habbani, Jamal El Abbadi

Abstract: In MANETs, routing protocols are needed to ensure reliable communications between nodes. They are classified in three categories according to how they establish the routes between any two distanced nodes. There are reactive, proactive or hybrid protocols. The OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing) belongs to the proactive category in which the relays are used to reduce the number of retransmitter nodes and hence to avoid the network flooding with the control traffic. Therefore, it is very important to ensure the maximum reliability for the selected relays in order to increase the performance of the network. In this article, to achieve this goal, we propose an intelligent new method based on dynamic selection of the MPR (MultiPoint Relay) sets construction process. According to constraints related to the nodes environment, we select from many strategies the one that it is the more suitable for being elected as MPR. In this article, two enhanced versions of the OLSR protocol are proposed. In the first one, we use the nodes mobility degree of the neighborhood to select the more suitable MPR. In the second one, we use the quantity of transiting traffic per node. In addition, extensive and rigorous simulations are made by a discrete event simulator to evaluate the efficiency of our approach.

Keywords: Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET), Mobility, MultiPoint Relay (MPR), OLSR Routing protocol

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #39, pp. 337-347

Title of the Paper: Multi-User Detection Based on Weights Selected Particle Filter in Impulsive Noise

Authors: Guangfeng Jin, Zhiyuan Zhu, Shengjie Li

Abstract: Degradation is a major problem for the particle filter algorithm. Although the conventional resampling method can solve the degradation problem, it will make the particles lose diversity. In this paper, we proposed a weights selected particle filter (WSPF) algorithm for adaptive multi-user detection (MUD) in synchronous code division multiple access (CDMA) system. This algorithm assumes the number of particles required to removal the invalid particles, reserve the particles which make great contributions to state estimation. Thus it can mitigate the degradation of the particle filter. And this algorithm is suitable for the non-linear non-Gaussian system. The simulation results show that the bit error rate of the system can be reduced to a large extent. So the proposed algorithm has important reference value.

Keywords: Particle filter, CDMA, Multi-user detection, Weights selected, Non-Gaussian noise

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #38, pp. 332-336

Title of the Paper: IPS - Indoor Positioning System with Wireless Sensors

Authors: Faruk Bagci

Abstract: Recent developments in the area of ubiquitous and pervasive computing emphasize the interest in context-aware applications. Location is probably the most important context. Indoor location estimation and tracking remains challenging due to the lack of usable and cost-effective technologies. GPS has proved itself for outdoor usage, but it is not suitable for indoor applications due to poor coverage. Assuming that multiple wireless sensors will be attached to ubiquitous environments, they could also support location estimation and tracking. This paper presents an indoor positioning system using wireless sensors, called LocSens. LocSens works with a minimum number of sensor nodes in a real indoor scenario.

Keywords: Ubiquitous computing, pervasive computing, wireless sensor network, indoor positioning, indoor tracking

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #37, pp. 325-331

Title of the Paper: Performance Evaluation of Cooperative Versus Receiver Coded Diversity

Authors: Saif E. A. Alnawayseh, Pavel Loskot, Mutaz Al-Tarawneh, Ziyad Ahmed Al Tarawneh

Abstract: The amplify-and-forward and the decode-and-forward cooperative coded diversity are compared with the conventional receiver coded diversity in terms of the pairwise error probability and the overall bit error rate. The diversity systems under consideration can achieve the diversity order at most two. The performance comparison assumes channel coding with non-binary linear modulations, independent fading channels with path-loss attenuations proportional to the distances between the communicating nodes, and the diversity combining at the destination receiver. The expressions for the pairwise error probabilities are obtained analytically and verified by computer simulations. The performance of the cooperative diversity is found to be strongly relay location dependent. Hence, using the analytical as well as extensive numerical results, the geographical areas of the relay locations are obtained for small to medium signal-to-noise ratio values, such that the cooperative coded diversity outperforms the receiver coded diversity. On the other hand, for sufficiently large signal-to-noise ratio values, or if the path-loss attenuations are not considered, then the receiver coded diversity always outperforms the cooperative coded diversity. The obtained results have important implications on the deployment of the next generation cellular systems supporting the cooperative as well as the receiver diversity.

Keywords: Channel coding, communication system performance, cooperative systems, diversity methods, fading channels

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #36, pp. 309-324

Title of the Paper: Virtual Network Resource Allocation Based on Stackelberg Game Research

Authors: Xinxin Ren, Mingchun Zheng, Lu Liu

Abstract: In view of the network resources allocation problem in network virtualization environment, combined with the Stackelberg game model, this paper proposes a resources allocation scheme that can satisfy the maximum utility of the substrate network and virtual network at the same time. Firstly, it designed a utility function of virtual network based on revenue and cost, and proved in the price of the substrate network is determined, the utility function meet the conditions of concave function, which guarantee the Nash equilibrium point of non-cooperative game between the virtual network. In order to obtain the optimal bandwidth strategy in virtual network and the optimal pricing strategy in substrate network, the paper proposed a distributed iterative algorithm. Finally verified the effectiveness of the algorithm by numerical simulation experiments, and obtained the optimal strategy of players and the sub-game perfect Nash equilibrium.

Keywords: network virtualization, Stackelberg game, Nash equilibrium, resource allocation

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #35, pp. 301-308

Title of the Paper: A Beamformer for 120-Degree Secterization in LTE Systems

Authors: P. Wongchampa, P. Uthansakul, M. Uthansakul

Abstract: A Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology is the most possible candidate for next generation mobile wireless communications. One impairment of LTE is an interference from neighboring cells, so called Inter-Cell Interference (ICI). A Fractional Frequency Reuse (FFR) has been proposed to handle the problem. Also lately, soft FFR technique has been introduced for better utilization of frequency spectrum. In addition, beamforming technique is considered to be the solution to improve the performance of wireless communication systems. Therefore, this paper proposes a new beamforming matrix suitable for LTE systems in which the coverage area is divided into three 120°-sectors. The appropriate number of antenna elements and beam patterns is discussed. The computer simulation in terms of beam patterns confirms the proposed concept. Also, a prototype of new beamformer is fabricated and tested to reveal the real performance in terms of signal-to-interference ratio and channel capacity. The obtained results show that soft FFR technique including beamforming is the best choice for LTE systems.

Keywords: Beamforming network, Inter-Cell Interference, LTE, Mobile networks, Switched-beam antennas, Secterization, Secterization

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #34, pp. 287-300

Title of the Paper: The Counterchanged Crossed Cube Interconnection Network and its Topology Properties

Authors: Wang Xinyang

Abstract: In this paper, by combining with the network structures of the twisted n cube and the crossed cube, the counterchanged crossed cube network is proposed, a rigorous recursive definition is made, and the network topology structure graph is offered. Basing on the definition of the counterchanged crossed cube, this paper also analyzes the basic properties of the network, proves that the network is n-regular and its connectivity is n, illustrates the recursion characteristics of the network and two important corollaries are obtained. Through the recursive properties of the counterchanged crossed cube, then we discuss the relationship between any two vertexes in the network, and finally prove that the network diameter is D(CCQn)=[(n+1)/2].

Keywords: the counterchanged crossed cube, interconnection network, network diameter, connectivity, network topology

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #33, pp. 279-286

Title of the Paper: Performance Analysis Comparison of FFT and Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform (DWPT) Based MIMO-OFDM Systems

Authors: Soukaina Ettarfaoui, Haitham Jabbar Taha, Mohammed Majid Himmi

Abstract: Multiple Input Multiple output (MIMO) antennas can be combined with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) to ensure spatial diversity gain and/or to increase spectral efficiency. MIMO communication system with Alamouti methods can improve the bit error rate (BER) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) thus distortions are reduced for higher data rate. Conventionally OFDM is Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based system, it uses IFFT (Inverse FFT) blocks in the transmitter and FFT blocks in the receiver. Replacing the FFT with Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform (DWPT) makes the system’s performance further improved. This leads to a new scenario of DWPT based MIMO OFDM system. In this work, the STBC-MIMO-OFDM under the scenario of having multiple antennas system, with QAM in Rayleigh fading channel for different values of Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) points (8, 32 and 64) are implemented. By evaluating the BER performance and the transmission capacity, it turns out that the DWPT based MIMO-OFDM system is superior compared with the FFTMIMO- OFDM system. BER performance of the system is analyzed under different channel environments to assess the WPT based MIMO-OFDM performance in order to compare it with FFT based MIMO-OFDM system. In this paper the numerical results of the simulation consist a new contribution and are obtained using MATLAB. The simulation of DWPT-OFDM was accomplished with Haar mother based multicarrier. Whereas for both the latter and the conventional FFT-OFDM were subjected to the same conditions, for the multi-antenna system channel capacity and QAM modulation (8, 32, and 64) points in flat fading channels with AWGN and selective fading channel with AWGN. Computer simulation results demonstrate that the proposed wavelet based MIMOOFDM system outperforms in Alamouti (two transmit antenna and two receive antenna) due to the overlapping nature of DWPT dispensing the addition of cyclic prefix and less hardware complexity as in FFT based MIMOOFDM.

Keywords: DWPT, FFT, OFDM, MIMO, Alamouti STBC

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #32, pp. 267-278

Title of the Paper: Wireless Broadcast Transmission Scheme for Reliable Video-Streaming Service

Authors: Melisa Junuzović, Kemal Alič, Aleš Švigelj

Abstract: Recently, there has been growing interest in real-time streaming services such as IPTV over wireless access networks as it promises to deliver multimedia contents to clients whenever and wherever. However, providing those services over wireless networks in a timely and reliable manner is challenging due to high bandwidth demands, scarce radio resources, and lossy characteristics of wireless networks. A wireless channel may suffer from multi-path fading and interference, which may cause random packet losses; to make things worse, wireless link layer does not provide retransmission for multicast/broadcast traffic. This would impact the clients’ quality of experience of an IPTV programme. Unicast retransmission solutions improves client’s quality but at the bandwidth expense. This paper presents a transmission scheme for video streaming applications over last mile wireless networks, relaying on the use of Network Coding techniques to increase the overall performance, by means of reducing the number of physical transmissions resulting in reduced bandwidth consumption. Due to the bandwidth reduction, Internet Service Providers can increase the number of clients over the same infrastructure or, alternatively, offer more services to the clients. Results from practical testbed show that the number of transmissions can be significantly reduced and total bandwidth required to deliver the same content can be reduced for up to 15 %.

Keywords: Retransmission, wireless network, broadcast, network coding, streaming, IPTV

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #31, pp. 256-266

Title of the Paper: Next Generation Wearable Devices: Smart Health Monitoring Device and Smart Sousveillance Hat using Device to Device (D2D) Communications in LTE Assisted Networks

Authors: Niraj Shakhakarmi

Abstract: Next generation wearable devices such as Smart health monitoring device and Smart Sousveillance hat, are capable of using wearable sensors for measuring physiological information, sousveillanace, navigation, as well as smart device to smart device communi

Keywords: Next Generation Wearable Devices, Smart Health Monitoring Device, Smart Sousveillance Hat, Device to Device Communications, Long Term Evolution, Assisted Networks

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #30, pp. 241-255

Title of the Paper: Joint TOA/AOA Location Algorithms with Two BSs in Circular Scattering Environments

Authors: Shixun Wu, Dengyuan Xu, Honggang Wang

Abstract: In circular scattering environments, a scenario with two base stations (BSs) that the home BS measures time of arrival (TOA) and angle of arrival (AOA) while the neighboring BS only measures TOA is investigated. By incorporating the coordinates of scatter

Keywords: Time of arrival (TOA), Angle of arrival (AOA), Non-line-of-sight (NLOS), Algorithm

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #29, pp. 235-240

Title of the Paper: Future Internet: the Connected Device Interface Generic Enabler

Authors: P. Garino, L. Zuccaro, G. Oddi, A. Palo, A. Simeoni

Abstract: The panacea of application development is the ability to create a single application and deploy it on a range of mobile and traditional computing platforms. Web technology has offered the possibility of common programming environment for application devel

Keywords: Future Internet, Generic Enabler, Fragmentation Problem, Connected Device Interfaces, Cross-Domain and Cross-Device Development, Web runtime, Application platform

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #28, pp. 226-234

Title of the Paper: Antenna Selection Based Initial Ranging Method for IEEE 802.16m MIMO-OFDMA Systems

Authors: Yongpeng Shi, Yujie Xia

Abstract: An antenna selection based initial ranging method is proposed in orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) networks with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) for IEEE 802.16m standard. In the proposed scheme, the initial ranging signal proces

Keywords: orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), initial ranging, antenna selection (AS), multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), IEEE 802.16

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #27, pp. 219-225

Title of the Paper: Geomatics Applications on Mobile Telephony

Authors: Vincenzo Barrile, Giuseppe M. Meduri, Giuliana Bilotta

Abstract: The diffusion of new mobile terminals (smartphones, tablets), combined with the availability of data transmission networks faster and/or to the capillary diffusion of wireless systems, have enabled the exponential growth of information services and the cr

Keywords: Infomobility - Cultural applications - Assisted GPS - Archaeological maps - Electromagnetic fields

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #26, pp. 212-218

Title of the Paper: Independent Component Analysis Assisted Efficient PAPR Reduction and Symbol Recovery in OFDM Systems

Authors: Zhongqiang Luo, Lidong Zhu, Chengjie Li

Abstract: In order to coordinate the performance loss and PAPR reduction due to the effect of the conventional PAPR reduction scheme, a new peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction and symbol recovery scheme in OFDM system is proposed assisted by precoding and

Keywords: independent component analysis, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, peak-to-average power ratio, blind equalization

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #25, pp. 204-211

Title of the Paper: Detection of Spatially Distributed Signals by Generalized Receiver Using Radar Sensor Arrays

Authors: Vyacheslav Tuzlukov

Abstract: We consider a problem of detecting a random spatially distributed signal source by an array of sensors based on the generalized approach to signal processing (GASP) in noise. We derive some generalized receiver (GR) structures under several assumptions on

Keywords: Generalized detector, distributed source, sensor array, generalized likelihood ratio test, adaptive coherence estimator detector, clutter, jamming

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #24, pp. 186-203

Title of the Paper: PTS with Alternate Odd-Even SubblockWeighting for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems

Authors: Lingyin Wang

Abstract: Partial transmit sequence (PTS) is one of multiple signal representation schemes for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, which provides good PAPR reduction performance without any sign

Keywords: OFDM, PAPR, PTS, phase weighting

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #23, pp. 180-185

Title of the Paper: Intelligent Network Selection for Vertical Handover Optimization in LTE-Advanced

Authors: Abubakar Muhammad Miyim

Abstract: Vertical handover decision (VHD) is a complex strategy in heterogeneous wireless networks because of its significance on network application and performance. The mechanism adopted for the vertical handover utilizes the “break – before – make” phenomenon.

Keywords: LTE-A, Sub-Layer, eNodeB, VHD, Latency

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #22, pp. 170-179

Title of the Paper: A Large Set of Secure Signatures for DS-SS Long Range Radars in Autonomous Cars

Authors: Mahdiyar Sarayloo, Ennio Gambi, Susanna Spinsante

Abstract: The current trend in the use of ICT to boost the development of the automotive sector is mainly addressed towards so called autonomous vehicles, equipped with appropriate sensors, actuators and processors, that make them able to move safely, without the i

Keywords: Vehicle radar, Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum, signature, De Bruijn sequence, correlation

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #21, pp. 159-169

Title of the Paper: An Improved Available Bandwidth Measurement Algorithm Based on Pathload

Authors: Liang Zhao, Chongquan Zhong

Abstract: Available network bandwidth is an important metrics of the network performance. Quickly and accurately measuring the available network bandwidth is significant to network monitoring, congestion control, and network traffic projects. The traditional Pathlo

Keywords: Bandwidth Measurement, Network Available Bandwidth, Simulation, Pathload

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #20, pp. 153-158

Title of the Paper: A Hybrid Addition Chain Method For Faster Scalar Multiplication

Authors: M. A. Mohamed, M. R. Md. Said

Abstract: Solutions to addition chain problem can be applied to operations involving huge number such as scalar multiplication in elliptic curve cryptography. Recently, a decomposition method was introduced, with an intention to generate addition chain with minimal

Keywords: decomposition method, elliptic curve cryptography, non-adjacent form, binary method, NP-hard

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #19, pp. 144-152

Title of the Paper: Comparative Study of the Radiation Pattern of Circular Patch Antenna by Using the Model of the Resonant Cavity Approach for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

Authors: Ali El Alami, Saad Dosse Bennani

Abstract: The main objective of this work is to make a comparative study of the radiation pattern of circular patch antenna excited in transverses magnetics modes. This Study is based on the model of the resonant cavity approach and intended for RFID application ar

Keywords: Cavity model, circular patch antenna, modes TM11, TM21, TM31, TM41, TM51 and TM61, RFID, radiation pattern

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #18, pp. 140-143

Title of the Paper: Optimal Transmission Policies for Energy Harvesting Transmitter with Hybrid Energy Source in Fading Wireless Channel

Authors: Didi Liu, Jiming Lin, Junyi Wang, Yuxiang Shen, Yibin Chen

Abstract: Optimal energy scheduling problem for single-user wireless communication system in fading channel is studied in this paper. In this schedule, the transmitter is powered by hybrid energy sources including both the conventional grid and an energy harvester

Keywords: Energy harvesting, Lyapunov optimization, Optimal transmission policy, Hybrid energy source, Wireless communication

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #17, pp. 131-139

Title of the Paper: The Performance of DTN Routing Protocols: A Comparative Study

Authors: El Arbi Abdellaoui Alaoui, Said Agoujil, Moha Hajar, Youssef Qaraai

Abstract: The delay tolerant networks (DTN), which form the mobile and wireless ad hoc networks, are characterized by intermittent connectivity, asymmetric flow, high error rate and long or variable delivery time, especially when the destination is not in the same

Keywords: Network, Ad Hoc, DTN, Epidemic, Spray and Wait, Prophet, MaxProp, BLER, ONE Simulator

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #16, pp. 121-130

Title of the Paper: A Methodology for Building a Dataset to Assess Intrusion Detection Systems in Wireless Networks

Authors: Ed’ Wilson Tavares Ferreira, Ailton Akira Shinoda, Ruy De Oliveira, Valtemir Emerencio Nascimento, Nelcileno Virgílio De Souza Araújo

Abstract: This paper proposes building a dataset to be used in evaluation of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). We collected traffic in a real wireless network, processed such data and then evaluated IDS classification techniques with our processed data. Actually,

Keywords: Wireless LAN, Intrusion Detection, Dataset

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #15, pp. 113-120

Title of the Paper: Leaky Wave Antenna Design based on SIW Technology for Millimeter Wave Applications

Authors: Souad Doucha, Mehadji Abri, Hadjira Abri Badaoui

Abstract: Actually, substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology offers a promising advance for the implementation of compact, low-loss and cost effective components at microwave and millimeter-wave frequency. In this paper a new type of leaky-wave antenna (LWA)

Keywords: Leaky wave antenna, substrate integrated waveguide, CST

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #14, pp. 108-112

Title of the Paper: Performance Evaluation of VSAT MC-CDMA System Using MUD in Frequency Selective Environments

Authors: Mohammed El Jourmi, Hassan El Ghazi, Hassan Ouahmane, Abdellatif Bennis

Abstract: In this paper the bit error rate performance of a satellite communication system based on Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) technology and Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) scheme is investigated in frequency selective environments.

Keywords: VSAT Network, MC-CDMA scheme, MUD techniques, SUD techniques, Uplink transmission

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #13, pp. 96-107

Title of the Paper: Development of a Wavelet Encoder in FPGA

Authors: Felipe Gama, Rodrigo Semente, Luiz Silveira

Abstract: The performance of wireless communications systems is mainly limited by fading produced by multipath propagation. In order to minimize the destructive effects of fading, several techniques have been proposed recently, among them, diversity techniques and

Keywords: Fading, FPGA, wavelet encoding

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #12, pp. 89-95

Title of the Paper: Enhanced Power Saving Mechanism to Maximize Unavailability Interval in the IEEE 802.16 Mobile WiMAX

Authors: Jia-Sheng R. Chen, Yuan-Chang Chang, Hsing Mei

Abstract: In this paper, an energy conservation mechanism to maximize the unavailability interval and to improve the energy efficiency for the Power Saving Class in WiMAX are proposed. The proposed method can be implemented in commercial fields and is fully compati

Keywords: Power saving, Start frame number, Unavailability interval, WiMAX

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #11, pp. 82-88

Title of the Paper: Performance Evaluation of Time Hopping UWB Transmission Using S-Rake Receiver

Authors: Said Ghendir, Salim Sbaa, Riadh Ajgou, Ali Chemsa, A. Taleb-Ahmed

Abstract: In this paper, we address a performance evaluation of Time Hopping Ultra-Wideband (TH-UWB) transmission with proposed procedures, based on Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) and considering IEEE 802.15.3a Channel Models (CM1, CM2, CM3, CM4). Moreover, a Sel

Keywords: Channel Estimation, DA, ML, NDA, PPM, S-Rake, TH-UWB

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #10, pp. 74-81

Title of the Paper: Approaches for Future Internet architecture design and Quality of Experience (QoE) Control

Authors: S. Battilotti, F. Delli Priscoli, C. Gori Giorgi, A. Pietrabissa, S. Monaco, M. Panfili, S. Canale, V. Suraci

Abstract: Researching a Future Internet capable of overcoming the current Internet limitations is a strategic investment. In this respect, this paper presents some concepts that can contribute to provide some guidelines to overcome the above-mentioned limitations. In the authors' vision, a key Future Internet target is to allow applications to transparently, efficiently and flexibly exploit the available network resources with the aim to match the users' expectations. Such expectations could be expressed in terms of a properly defined Quality of Experience (QoE). In this respect, this paper provides some approaches for coping with the QoE provision problem.

Keywords: Quality of Experience, Quality of Service, Future Internet, Reinforcement Learning

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #9, pp. 62-73

Title of the Paper: Load-Aware Spectrum Allocation Based on Interference Graph Adapting to Radio Characteristics

Authors: Wenqi Sun, Hewu Li, Jianping Wu

Abstract: Nowadays, load-driven spectrum allocation in wireless networks is becoming more important since the surging mobile traffic are usually distributed quite uneven. Related approaches have been proposed to assign channels of different widths for APs in WLAN. But a challenge usually being ignored is that radio characteristics will affect the interference graph which is a key basis in the allocation process. In this paper, we explain influences of radio features on interference graph and give a simple method to estimate the more accurate interference graph accordingly. In addition, a load-aware spectrum allocation mechanism for APs is proposed. The mechanism firstly decides widths of channels required by APs and estimates the more accurate interference graph based on several characteristics like channel-width, central frequency. Then it arranges spectrum blocks for APs based on the new interference graph. Simulations and analysis show that spectrum allocation method using wrong interference graph will generate great spectrum overlaps between interfering APs, about 1350MHz. And our mechanism could improve spectrum utilization efficiency by nearly two times while generating only few overlaps, about 250MHz.

Keywords: radio characteristics, interference graph, load-aware, WLAN spectrum

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #8, pp. 54-61

Title of the Paper: On the Optimum Power Allocation in a Cellular DS/FFH-CDMA System

Authors: P. Varzakas

Abstract: The optimization between the average received power and the theoretically achievable average channel capacity per user (in the Shannon sense) of a hybrid direct-sequence/fast frequency hopping codedivision multiple-access (DS/FFH-CDMA) cellular system, when operating in a Rayleigh fading environment, is presented. The analysis leads to a novel-closed form expression for the optimal average received power value based on the maximization of the achieved spectral efficiency, estimated in terms of the available average channel capacity per user. Finally, respective numerical results are presented.

Keywords: Hybrid CDMA systems, Cellular systems, Channel capacity, Rayleigh fading

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #7, pp. 50-53

Title of the Paper: QoS-Aware Power Control Methods for Two-Way Amplify-and-Forward Relay Systems

Authors: Joonwoo Shin, Bangwon Seo

Abstract: We consider power control methods for two-way amplify-and-forward (AF) relay systems. Traffics with different quality-of-service (QoS) requirements are exchanged between two transmit nodes where one of the traffics is a rate-constrained (RC) traffic and the other is a best-effort (BE) traffic. Based on the QoS feasibility of RC traffic, we propose two types of power control methods to maximize the transmission rate of BE traffic. In case QoS requirement of RC traffic is satisfied, we derive a power control method that maximizes the transmission rate of BE traffic. On the contrary, when QoS requirement of RC traffic is not feasible, we propose a power control method to maximize the transmission rate of BE traffic considering the automatic-repeat-request (ARQ) protocols. Through the analysis and numerical results, we verify the performance improvement of the proposed method. Compared with the equal power allocation method, the overall transmission rate of the BE traffic is increased up to 30 % depending on the relay location and the QoS requirement of the RC traffic.

Keywords: Amplify-and-Forward, quality of service, power control, relay, outage

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #6, pp. 43-49

Title of the Paper: Lee Microcell Propagation Model: A Complex Case Empirical Study

Authors: Ángelo Vera Rivera, Alfredo Núñez Unda, Boris Ramos, Elsa Macías, Álvaro Suárez, Jorge Gómez

Abstract: Power propagation model construction for mobile communications is very important in order to assure the quality of physical communication. The Lee model allows predicting the path loss in different scenarios: terrain, suburban, urban, over-aquatic, among others. It has been used to model the communications in several scenarios around the world. It also can be used to model the communication at different frequencies and transmission power. Other derived models have also been published recently. In this paper we present a new usage of this model to predict the path loss in a complex scenario. Recent case study works apply this model to a specific scenario that only considers problems with one kind of transmission media. We consider different kind of environments present in our scenario. We have done an analysis that includes a deep insight on obstruction phenomenon caused by buildings and how they impact signal propagation. We also analyze a microcell in which vegetation is present. The novelty is that the two above environments are present in our case study and show that the Lee’s model is very appropriated in both cases. This complex scenario (living lab) allows us to design an academic realistic learning tool for some key concepts about signal propagation theory and practice.

Keywords: Lee propagation model, campus environment, fading, learning tool

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #5, pp. 33-42

Title of the Paper: Study, Design and Optimization of a New Structure of Patch Antenna Linear Array for RFID Applications

Authors: Ali El Alami, Saad Dosse Bennani

Abstract: In this paper, we propose to study and optimize a new structure of a patch antenna linear array to four identical elements. This array is connected in parallel with a microstrip line in the form « T » having a power port adapted to 50 Ω and intended for Radio Frequency Identification applications. The insertion of slots in the structure of the patch antenna array has a direct and positive impact on improving the radiation characteristics in terms of reflection coefficient, voltage standing wave ratio, input impedance and gain over a frequency range of 2 GHz to 3 GHz. The design and optimization have been performed using the simulator HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator) based on the finite element method. Next, in order to validate our simulation, we use another electromagnetic simulator CST MWS (Computer Simulation Technology- MicroWaves Studio) which is based on the finite integration method. The simulation results for the four-element linear array show that the reflection coefficient reaches a level of -25.49 dB, the standing wave ratio is strictly less than 2 and the gain is approximately 14.50 dB for the same frequency resonance of 2.4 GHz.

Keywords: linear array, patch antenna, microstrip line, RFID application, simulateurs HFSS and CST

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #4, pp. 26-32

Title of the Paper: Performance Improvement of Duty-Cycle Division Multiplexing System Utilizing Symbol Coding Customization

Authors: M. N. Derahman, A. Malekmohammadi, G. Gnanagurunathan, M. K. Abdullah, K. Dimyati, K. A. Noordin

Abstract: This paper looks at the novel method employed to improve the performance of the Duty-Cycle Division Multiplexing (DCDM) system. The proposed method involves signal processing and customisation of the signal at the transmitter side. This technique regulates the amplitude level of existing waveform into different levels in such a way that the appropriate eye-height is increased. The regulation is made possible based on the feedback received according to the condition of the received signal sent previously. This novel method enables a 7 dB improvement in comparison to the conventional model. In addition to that, performance for all transmitted channels is maintained in contrary to previous research outcomes.

Keywords: Optical communication, Multiplexing, Signal processing, Duty cycle Division Multiplexing

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #3, pp. 17-25

Title of the Paper: Ergodic Capacity of Dual-hop Semi-Blind AF Relaying over Composite Fading Channels Using Mixture Gamma Distribution

Authors: Weijun Cheng, Yan Huang

Abstract: Since the performance metrics of digital communication systems over composite multipath/lognormal fading channels is intractable, a mixture gamma (MG) fading model is used to approximateNakagami-lognormal (NL) fading model. By using MG fading model, the ergodic capacity of dualhop semi-blind amplify-and-forward relaying systems is investigated over independent non-identical composite NL fading channels. First, we derived an exact closed-form expression of the ergodic capacity for the considered system based on the elementary probability transformation. Then, several capacity bounds and one approximate expression are obtained over MG fading channels for the purpose of comparison with the above exact analysis. Finally, numerical and simulation results are shown to verify the accuracy of the analytical results under different conditions, such as varying average signal to noise ratio, fading parameters per hop and the choice of the semi-blind gain.

Keywords: Dual-hop relaying, Nakagami-lognormal, Mixture Gamma distribution, Ergodic capacity, Fixed gain, Capacity bound

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #2, pp. 11-16

Title of the Paper: Performance Approximation of Persistent Relay CSMA with Carry-Over of Backoff Counter Freezing After Collision

Authors: Katsumi Sakakibara, Takuya Harada, Jumpei Taketsugu

Abstract: Cooperative transmission with one or more relay nodes has been investigated. We propose incorporation of the carry-over of backoff counter freezing after collision to Persistent Relay Carrier Sense Multiple Access (PRCSMA), in which two or more relay nodes cooperatively support retransmission of frame originated from source node over a common channel. The performance of the proposed protocol is approximately analyzed by means of a Markovian model. The accuracy of the approximation is verified by compute simulations. By carrying over the backoff counter freezing, that is, by deferring the backoff counter decrement, the priority of frame transmission in the next time slot is given to only nodes involved in frame collision. Therefore, the possibility of consecutive collision can be mitigated. Numerical results reveal that the proposed protocol can greatly improve the performance of the original PRCSMA. By carrying over the backoff counter freezing, the possibility of consecutive frame collisions can be reduced. This successfully leads to avoidance of a catastrophic series of frame collisions and considerable reduction of cooperation phase.

Keywords: Persistent relay CSMA, Cooperative retransmission control, IEEE 802.11 DCF, Markovian model

WSEAS Transactions on Communications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2742 / 2224-2864, Volume 14, 2015, Art. #1, pp. 1-10