WSEAS Transactions on

Print ISSN: 1109-9445
E-ISSN: 2415-1513

2016 | Pre-2016

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Volume 7, 2016

Title of the Paper: Electrohydraulic Servomechanisms Affected by Multiple Failures: A Model-Based Prognostic Method Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: M. D. L. Dalla Vedova, G. Bonanno, P. Maggiore

Abstract: In order to detect incipient failures due to a progressive wear of a primary flight command electrohydraulic actuator (EHA), prognostics could employ several approaches; the choice of the best ones is driven by the efficacy shown in failure detection, since not all the algorithms might be useful for the proposed purpose. In other words, some of them could be suitable only for certain applications while they could not give useful results for others. Developing a fault detection algorithm able to identify the precursors of the above mentioned EHA failure and its degradation pattern is thus beneficial for anticipating the incoming failure and alerting the maintenance crew so as to properly schedule the servomechanism replacement. The research presented in the paper was focused to develop a new prognostic procedure centered on the characterization of the state of health of a common electro-hydraulic actuator for primary command usage. It is based on an innovative model based fault detection and identification method (FDI) that makes use of deterministic and heuristic solvers in order to converge to the actual state of wear of the tested actuator. In particular, the proposed model takes in account three different types of progressive failures: the clogging of the first stage of the flapper-nozzle valve, the rising of friction between spool and sleeve and finally the rising of friction between jack and cylinder. To assess the robustness of the proposed technique, an appropriate simulation test environment was developed. The results showed an adequate robustness and confidence was gained in the ability to early identify an eventual EHA malfunctioning with low risk of false alarms or missed failures.

Keywords: EHA, aeronautical servomechanism, numerical modeling, fault detection/identification (FDI), prognostics, genetic algorithm

WSEAS Transactions on Electronics, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9445 / 2415-1513, Volume 7, 2016, Art. #11, pp. 85-91

Title of the Paper: A Novel Probabilistic-PSO Based Learning Algorithm for Optimization of Neural Networks for Benchmark Problems

Authors: Sudhir G. Akojwar, Pravin R. Kshirsagar

Abstract: This paper approbates a modern and stentorian version of standard particle swarm optimization (PSO) for optimization of initial weights and biases for multi layer feed forward neural networks (MLFFNN) with back propagation (BP). The combination of probabilistic-PSO and MLFFNN sevenfold help in fast convergence of MLFFNN in assortment and sortilege to various benchmark problems by alienating the imperfection of backpropagation of being stuck at local minima or local maxima. The propane probabilistic-PSO differs from the standard PSO in velocity and position parameters. In velocity parameters only particle best value is make use of for cicerone the particle to gait towards the pursuit in the search space, while in standard PSO both particle best and global best values are considered for adjudging the new velocity of the particle. A new parameter introduced which called as the probability parameter (P0), which adjudges if the standard PSO is that instead of using same random number, different particles use different random numbers to soar in search space. The proposed method used to detect the initial weights and biases for MLFFNN with BP, once the optimum value for initial weights and biases estimated the MLFFNN then used for classification and sortilege of various neural network benchmark problems. The benchmarking databases for neural network contain various datasets from various different domains. All datasets represent sensible issue, which can call diagnosis tasks, and all the datasets consist of real world data. The results for accuracy of the proposed probabilistic-PSO method compared with existing methods.

Keywords: Probabilistic-PSO, multi layer feed forward neural networks (MLFFNN), back propagation (BP), local minima, local maxima, convergence, optimum weights and biases, benchmark problems

WSEAS Transactions on Electronics, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9445 / 2415-1513, Volume 7, 2016, Art. #10, pp. 79-84

Title of the Paper: Low-Power Measurement of Contact Impedance in Dry Electrocardiography

Authors: M. J. Burke, C. Molloy, H. Fossan

Abstract: This paper reports the design of an improved circuit for monitoring the quality of contact of un-gelled electrodes with a patient’s skin in the measurement of the ECG. The circuit is intended to be incorporated into a monitor used prior to and during childbirth to measure the mother’s heart rate. The revised design uses commercially available low-power technology to implement the circuit with a reduction in the power consumption by a factor of more than 40 over a previous design [13,14]. The circuit measures electrode contact impedance and activates a visual alarm when the contact impedance of either electrode rises above 100kΩ. The impedance is measured using a signal injected through the electrodes at a frequency of 5kHz. The resulting signal present at the amplifier input at this frequency is then extracted and processed before threshold detection of the signal level which is used to indicate whether or not the quality of contact with the electrodes is acceptable for the purposes of heart rate measurement. The circuit operates at a current of 700μA drawn from a 3.3V supply which gives a power consumption of 25mW.

Keywords: Electrode impedance, Un-gelled electrodes, Heart rate monitoring, ECG amplifier

WSEAS Transactions on Electronics, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9445 / 2415-1513, Volume 7, 2016, Art. #9, pp. 65-78

Title of the Paper: Let us be Prepared in Defence Against Counterfeit Integrated Circuits

Authors: Neumann Petr, Houser Josef, Navratil Milan, Kresalek Vojtech, Adamek Milan

Abstract: This paper deals with an important topic aimed at counterfeit electronic components and their detection. The preventive technical diagnostics methods for counterfeit components revealing before entering the assembly process are mentioned and described. There are discussed both nowadays common analytical methods and also methods containing counterfeit components revealing potential to be evaluated and applied. Some facts which may influence negatively the component evaluation result are also mentioned. Practical methods for semiconductor component genuineness evaluation are discussed and illustrated with examples based on our research activities in relation to cooperation with electronic devices assembly manufacturers. Those methods correspond with our current research laboratory equipment comprising analogue signature analyzer, electronic component oriented X-ray, fiber laser for component package decapsulation, scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, polarization microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Terahertz spectroscopy. The model case of counterfeit component discovery among spare parts and replaced parts in a company repairing measurement devices is given in the end of this paper.

Keywords: Counterfeit electronic component, Analogue Signature Analysis, pin print, I-V characteristics, X-ray inspection, delidding, decapsulation, laser ablation, final wet etching

WSEAS Transactions on Electronics, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9445 / 2415-1513, Volume 7, 2016, Art. #8, pp. 48-64

Title of the Paper: New Types of Multisoliton Solutions of Some Integrable Equations via Direct Methods

Authors: Georgy I. Burde

Abstract: Exact explicit solutions, which describe new multisoliton dynamics, have been identified for some KdV type equations using direct methods devised for this purpose. It is found that the equations, having multi-soliton solutions in terms of the KdV-type solitons, possess also an alternative set of multi-soliton solutions which include localized static structures that behave like (static) solitons when they collide with moving solitons. The alternative sets of solutions include the steady-state solution describing the static soliton itself and unsteady solutions describing mutual interactions in a system consisting of a static soliton and several moving solitons. As distinct from common multisoliton solutions those solutions represent combinations of algebraic and hyperbolic functions and cannot be obtained using the traditional methods of soliton theory.

Keywords: integrability, solitons, KdV-type equations, direct methods, steady-state solitons

WSEAS Transactions on Electronics, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9445 / 2415-1513, Volume 7, 2016, Art. #7, pp. 44-47

Title of the Paper: 3D Printing of Copper Filament for Layered Fabrication

Authors: A. Arivarasi, R. Anand Kumar

Abstract: 3D printing also referred as additive manufacturing is the automated printing methodology for 3D designed models. The layer by layer additive manufacturing possesses numerous benefits right from innovative products to reducing wastage in production. Optimized metal production using non FDM methods is perhaps inevitable in the manufacturing industry, particularly for military and aeronautical areas. It is still a challenge to handle high processing temperatures and multiple metal materials. Printing metal or multiple metals in a substrate is not yet prototyped using any of the 3D printing processes. New metal composite filaments are invented for FDM printers, among which is the Copper-PLA filament. The filament is printed for micro thickness on a glass substrate, which is characterized using inverted type metallurgical microscope for applying in nano sensor fabrication. The average grain size measures 6.5 microns with a total feature count of 82 microns. The minimum feature circumference of particles are 0.075 microns. The porosity count is 119 or 0.04% of the total surface area.

Keywords: Copper, PLA, glass, 3D printing, porosity, grain size

WSEAS Transactions on Electronics, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9445 / 2415-1513, Volume 7, 2016, Art. #6, pp. 38-43

Title of the Paper: Transmission Characteristic of Unmyelinated and Myelinated Axons in Neurons

Authors: Yumi Takizawa, Atsushi Fukasawa

Abstract: This paper describes signal transmission characteristics of axons. Unmyelinated and myelinated axons are considered for electrophysical analysis. Inductance L and capacity C per unit length, and phase velocity are given first for lossless axon. It is then presented that higher velocity and wideband signal transmission are capable under reduced C and L with large cross section and myelins. Loss and phase rotation per unit length are also given for axon with serial resistance r and parallel conductance g. Attenuation, phase rotation, and phase velocity are given for axon with loss. Long distance transmission is realized by reduction of serial resistance r and parallel conductance g along the axon. It is also presented that attenuation loss is resuced by Na+ ions distributed at the axon without myelins.

Keywords: Electrophysical modelling of axon, Myelination and unmyelination in axon, Velocity and bandwidth, Attenuation, Phase rotation

WSEAS Transactions on Electronics, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9445 / 2415-1513, Volume 7, 2016, Art. #5, pp. 32-37

Title of the Paper: Strained Nanoscale GeSiSn Layers Grown on Silicon for Optoelectronic

Authors: Alexandr Nikiforov, Vyacheslav Timofeev, Artur Tuktamyshev, Andrew Yakimov, Vladimir Mashanov, Ivan Loshkarev, Anton Gutakovskii, Oleg Pchelyakov, Nataliya Baidakova

Abstract: The formation of pseudomorphous GeSiSn layers directly on Si have been investigated. The transition from two-dimensional growth regime to three-dimensional of the GeSiSn film on Si(100) was studied for different mismatch with silicon and growth temperatures. A possibility of synthesizing multilayer structures by molecular beam epitaxy was shown, and the crystal lattice constants using the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry were determined. Based on multilayer GeSiSn/Si structures the p-i-n-diodes, which demonstrated the photoresponse increasing by several orders of magnitude compared to the Sn-free structures at an increase in the Sn content, were created. Nanostructures based on GeSiSn layers have demonstrated the photoluminescence at 0.6 0.85 eV.

Keywords: Silicon, Germanium, Tin, MBE, Strained layers, Optical properties

WSEAS Transactions on Electronics, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9445 / 2415-1513, Volume 7, 2016, Art. #4, pp. 26-31

Title of the Paper: Ill-Conditioned Problems Improvement Adapting Joseph Covariance Formula to Non-Linear Bayesian Filters

Authors: Francesco De Vivo, Manuela Battipede, Piero Gili, Alberto Brandl

Abstract: Integration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) into civil airspace is becoming a fundamental requirement to satisfy the even more consumer growing demand. The limiting issues for this integration are related to the development of a reliable Sense and Avoid (SAA) system able to equate the human eye performances. Multisensor data fusion techniques are generally used in order to overcome single sensor shortcomings. Although much research addresses toward the realisation of better performing sensors, system degradation could arise from bad numerical behaviours injected by the specific fusion algorithm. Bayesian estimators are the most widely used techniques to perform this task but they could be affected by round-off errors. To improve filter instabilities, induced by ill-conditioned matrices, an alternative numerical approach, based on the Joseph form of the state covariance matrix update applied to non-linear systems is presented. The novelty of this technique lies on taking advantage from the higher order accuracy ensured by Sigma-Point Kalman Filters for solving non-linear inference problems, and using the more numerically robust Joseph update equation.

Keywords: Kalman Filter, Sense And Avoid, UAV, Data Fusion, Tracking, Round-off Errors, Bayesian Inference

WSEAS Transactions on Electronics, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9445 / 2415-1513, Volume 7, 2016, Art. #3, pp. 18-25

Title of the Paper: Effect of Applied Electric Field and Pressure on the Electron Avalanche Growth

Authors: L. Zeghichi, L. Mokhnache, M. Djebabra

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to mimic, using the Monte Carlo Simulation, the electron avalanche growth by tracking individual paths of charged particles; the effect of space charge is included by solving the Poisson equation. An electronic avalanche is produced, when an electric field, sufficiently intense, is applied to a gas. At some stage of formation of free electrons and ions; the electronic avalanche becomes a conductor channel, and then self sustainment of the discharge. The simulation is carried out in O2 gas for two different pressures, under the effect of uniform electrical fields. The streamer breakdown criterion for the different applied uniform fields is examined.

Keywords: Electrical discharge, Electrical Breakdown, Collision probability, Poisson’s equation, Monte Carlo Simulation

WSEAS Transactions on Electronics, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9445 / 2415-1513, Volume 7, 2016, Art. #2, pp. 11-17

Title of the Paper: New Models of a Z-Source Inverter Built of Standard MATLAB Simulink Blocks

Authors: Miljenko Polić, Mateo Bašić, Dinko Vukadinović

Abstract: In this paper, two new simulation models of a Z-Source inverter (ZSI) system are proposed. These models have been built only out of standard MATLAB-Simulink blocks. The proposed models have been developed using two sets of differential equations – for the non-shoot-through and shoot-through states – which are alternately executed, depending on the ZSI state. In the first model, this is done by alternately triggering two separate subsystems, each corresponding to one of the ZSI states. In contrast, in the second model, both ZSI states are programmed by using the same Simulink blocks, contained within a single unified subsystem; the interaction between the blocks is, however, altered based on the same trigger signal. For comparison, another model of the ZSI system has been developed in additional MATLAB SimPowerSystems toolbox. Results for various types of loads for all three models have been compared and discussed.

Keywords: Impedance-Source inverters, Z-Source inverter, Modulation techniques, Maximum constant boost control, MATLAB-Simulink, SimPowerSystems

WSEAS Transactions on Electronics, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9445 / 2415-1513, Volume 7, 2016, Art. #1, pp. 1-10