WSEAS Transactions on
Environment and Development

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Print ISSN: 1790-5079
E-ISSN: 2224-3496

Volume 10, 2014

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of WSEAS Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

Volume 10, 2014

Title of the Paper: Indoor Air Quality in Waste Treatment: Environmental Issue and Biotechnology Application for Air Pollution Containment, a Case Study

Authors: Alessandra Bonoli, Sara Zanni

Abstract: A proper integrated management of municipal waste analyzes the entire life cycle of waste, from cradle to grave, i.e. the final stage of disposal or recycling, through which waste come back as a resource, as required by Waste European Directive. In this perspective, every possible impact factor should be taken into account and, therefore, air quality and odor control have to be addressed as crucial elements for sustainable waste management, as directly affecting quality of life of both workers and people living in the surroundings of waste treatment facilities. While the issue is generally regarded as a major concern in presence of incinerators (for air pollution control) and landfill (for odor, mainly), it is usually neglected when segregated dry waste treatment is involved, but it remains an element of concern for population and, therefore, public stakeholders. A modern segregated waste treatment plant, already compliant with regulations requirements regarding indoor air quality and human health, was taken as a case study to prove the effectiveness of a biotechnological treatment for air pollution and odor control. The system applied is based on stand-alone bio-oxidizers that provide internal air-mixing within the facility and capture particulates and gases by attracting them to a clean air zone generated by its action. In this paper, only the preliminary phase of application for the system is presented. It was preceded by a completion of analysis of air quality baseline, collected by a Wireless Sensor Network, which have been compared to the following five months of system activity, showing a consistent effectiveness in air pollutant containment and abatement. These results found confirmation in parallel independent laboratory analysis which showed comparable abatement trends. A comparison with a traditional biofiltration case study marked the great opportunity offered by the bioreactors' system implemented in an overall indoor air quality perspective.

Keywords: Sustainable waste management system, Indoor Air Quality, Odor control, Immobilized Cell Bioreactors

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #54, pp. 529-541

Title of the Paper: Comparative Environmental and Economic Analysis of South European Building Constructive Systems

Authors: Francisco Oliveira, Paulo Mendonça, João Pedro Couto, Aires Camões, Elisa Silva

Abstract: The choice between different materials and constructive systems can influence significantly the environmental impact and economic cost of construction. In this context, four constructive systems used in South European were studied: one conventional - composed by hollow brick walls and steel reinforced post and beam concrete structure; and three non-conventional - light steel framing (LSF); wood frame (WF); and insulation concrete form (ICF). Using a case study based on a contemporary Portuguese typology of a single family dwelling, some environmental impact indicators, as well as the weight and the economic cost of these solutions were evaluated.

Keywords: Environmental impact, constructive solutions, economic analysis, functional analysis

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #53, pp. 509-528

Title of the Paper: A Statistical Approach for Calibrating a Microsimulation Model for Freeways

Authors: Raffaele Mauro, Orazio Giuffrè, Anna Granà, Sandro Chiappone

Abstract: In this paper the calibration of a traffic microsimulation model based on speed-density relationships is presented. Hypothesis test was applied in the calibration process to measure the closeness between empirical data and simulation outputs and determine whether the difference between (observed and simulated) speeddensity relationships was statistically significant. Statistical regressions between the variables of traffic flow were developed by using traffic data observed at the A22 Brenner Freeway, Italy. Similar relationships were obtained for a test freeway segment in uncongested conditions of traffic flow by using the Aimsun microscopic simulator; thus on field conditions were reproduced varying some selected parameters until a good match between measurement and simulation was achieved.

Keywords: freeway, traffic, microsimulation, speed-density relationship, calibration, Aimsun

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #52, pp. 496-508

Title of the Paper: Bivariate Process Capability Analysis of Fuel Injection Nozzles Production

Authors: Lubos Kotek, Vaclav Pistek, Martin Jonak

Abstract: The evaluation of the production process accuracy using process capability analysis are becoming more frequent. Many industrial processes have more than one quality characteristic and the need of the multivariate evaluation of process performance becomes more and more important. This article deals with the process capability analysis of injection nozzles production.

Keywords: process capability analysis, high-speed camera, injection nozzle, quality of production

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #51, pp. 491-495

Title of the Paper: Proposal of Prognostic Parametric Method Applied to an Electrohydraulic Servomechanism Affected by Multiple Failures

Authors: M. D. L. Dalla Vedova, P. Maggiore, L. Pace

Abstract: Prognostics could employ several approaches with the aim to detect incipient failures due to a progressive wear of a primary flight command electro hydraulic actuator (EHA); the efficacy shown in failure detection drives the choice of the best ones, since not all the algorithms might be useful for the intended purpose. This happens because some of them could be suitable only for specific applications while giving bad results for others. The development of a fault detection algorithm is thus beneficial for anticipating the incoming failure and alerting the maintenance crew so as to properly schedule the servomechanism replacement; such algorithm should be able to identify the precursors of the above mentioned EHA failure and its degradation pattern. This paper presents a research focused on the development of a prognostic methodology, able to identify symptoms alerting that an EHA component is degrading and will eventually exhibit an anomalous behavior; in detail, six different types of progressive failures have been considered (dry friction acting of servovalve spool or mechanical actuator, radial clearance between spool and sleeve, shape of the corners of the spool lands, torque sensitivity of the first stage torque motor, contamination of the first stage filter). To achieve such objectives, an innovative model based fault detection technique has been developed merging together the information achieved by FFT analysis and proper "failure precursors" (calculated comparing the actual EHA responses with the expected ones), relying upon a set of failure maps. The robustness of the proposed technique has been assessed through a simulation test environment, built on the purpose. Such simulation has demonstrated that the methodology has adequate robustness; also, the ability to early identify an eventual malfunctioning has been proved with low risk of missed failures or false positives.

Keywords: Electrohydraulic actuator, primary flight control, multiple failures, numerical modelling, position servomechanism, prognostics

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #50, pp. 478-490

Title of the Paper: Groundwater Management in Dar Es Salam Coastal Aquifer (Tanzania) under a Difficult Sustainable Development

Authors: Giuseppe Sappa, Giulia Luciani

Abstract: This paper deals with the approach and the consequent results referred to some activities carried out in the framework of the Adapting to Climate Change in Coastal Dar Es Salaam (ACC-DAR) project, to evaluate quantitative and qualitative evolution of groundwater in this coastal aquifer. The aim of the project was to enhance the capacities of Dar’s municipalities to adapt to climate change (CC). In 2012 it was carried out a monitoring campaign of groundwater, in order to evaluate CC effects and anthropic influences on groundwater resources, and to highlight the critical aspects of groundwater management in the area that could suggest consequent adapting measures. The data collected included precipitations, land cover and chemical composition of groundwater. Field data were analyzed and compared with historical data of the last ten years.

Keywords: Tanzania, Groundwater overexploitation, Seawater intrusion, Climate Change, Groundwater recharge

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #49, pp. 465-477

Title of the Paper: The Free License Codes as Decision Support System (DSS) for the Emergency Planning to Simulate Radioactive Releases in Case of Accidents in the New Generation Energy Plants

Authors: Andrea Malizia, Mariachiara Carestia, Claudio Cafarelli, Laura Milanese, Simona Pagannone, Amedeo Pappalardo, Massimo Pedemonte, Gianna Latini, Oscar Barlascini, Eugenio Fiorini, Paolo Maurizio Soave, Daniele Di Giovanni, Orlando Cenciarelli, Luca Antonelli, Fabrizio D’Amico, Leonardo Palombi, Carlo Bellecci, Pasqualino Gaudio

Abstract: The radiological risk is related to a wide range of activities, beginning with the medical and military ones and including those connected to the industrial and research activities such as nuclear fusion. A valid tool to predict the consequences of the accidents and reduce the risk is represented by computing systems that allow modeling the evolution of a possible release of radioactive materials over time and space. In addition to proprietary codes there are free license codes, like Hot-Spot, that allow providing a set of tools to simulate diffusion in case of accidents involving radioactive materials and analyze the safety and security of the facilities in which the radioactive material is manipulated. The case studies scenario’s consists in two simulations accidents scenario the first to biomass plant and the second at nuclear fission plant. The simulation of the radioactive contamination have been conducted with the code HOT SPOT, a free license code. The results of the simulation and data discussion will be presented in this work by the authors.

Keywords: Biomass, Nuclear Fission, Accident, Radioactive, Contamination, Cesium, Energy, Safety, Security, DSS

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #48, pp. 453-464

Title of the Paper: Evaluation of Al Qattara Depression Renewable Energy Potentials

Authors: Asad Salem, Emad Hudaib

Abstract: In this study; a brief evaluation has been presented for hydropower capabilities of proposed Qattara Depression Reservoir - maintained at 60 m BSL - served via two routes of water conveyance, an excavated tunnel and pumped water pipeline using the available renewable resources (such as Solar and Wind Energies) as a power source in the first stage of the project, both power demand and power potentials of the project have been presented along with the possibility of maintaining the salinity of the proposed reservoir in the upcoming years of the project, water desalination potentials are among other promising by-products of such project that is presented briefly here.

Keywords: Qattara, Egypt Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #47, pp. 444-452

Title of the Paper: Application of the Stochastic Model for Precipitation Generation in the Complex Orographic Region (Bashkortostan Republic, Russian Federation)

Authors: Tcvetana Volkova, Antonia Longobardi, Nataliya Krasnogorskaya

Abstract: This article presents the use of a stochastic approach to generate monthly precipitation total at the regional scale. The data of 32 meteorological stations located in the territory of the Bashkortostan Republic were used. To generate precipitation monthly data the gamma distribution function has been selected. To check the accuracy of approximation of the theoretical distribution of data the χ2-test has been used. To perform a regional scale application, estimated gamma distribution parameters (a and b) have been interpolated using the geostatistical kriging to map the spatial variability. The parametric Fisher’s and Student’s tests have been used to test the suitability of the regional approach to describe observed data, for the available point stations. The stochastic model based on gamma distribution function shows acceptable results of precipitation generation. Differences between observed and synthetic data could be caused by the particular climate conditions and orography features of the region.

Keywords: precipitation, precipitation generation, gamma distribution, homogeneity test, interpolation methods

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #46, pp. 434-443

Title of the Paper: Renewable Energy Resources and Their Impact on Rural Landscape

Authors: Donatella Cialdea, Luigi Mastronardi

Abstract: This paper analyzes the evolution of land use in Italy in particular about the impact of the renewable energy plants on the rural land. The study area is the Molise Region in the South of Italy, which contains the greatest number of plants in relation to the whole national territory. This paper describes an ongoing collaboration between our University of Molise, the Molise Region and the Regional Protection Heritage Office of Molise: in fact the Laboratory (Director prof. D. Cialdea) of the University of Molise was engaged for the realization of the “New Regional Landscape Plan of Molise”, through an agreement with the Molise Region, for the verification of existing tools, analyzing in particular the restrictions resulting from the identification of rural areas of visual and productive interest. Our study analyzes technical norms and proposes a new methodology that could support Local Authorities decisions, especially in relation to the definition of landscape quality aims, that the new Regional Landscape Plan must provide.

Keywords: Rural Land, Renewable Energy, Landscape, Geographical Information System, landscape quality

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #45, pp. 423-433

Title of the Paper: Assessment of Low Flows Occurrence in Chosen River Stations in Slovakia

Authors: Martina Zeleňáková, Pavol Purcz, Tatiana Soľáková, Dorota Simonová

Abstract: Hydrological drought is defined by long-term decrease in levels and flows of water bodies. The task of this paper is to analyze and identify statistical trends of low flows in streams in the eastern Slovakia. Methodology for evaluating hydrological drought is based on statistical analysis of observed low stream flows at chosen river stations – annual and seasonal. Mann-Kendall statistical test identifies the frequency of low stream flow trends in seasons. Obtained results from the statistical analysis of low stream flows can be the basement for hydrological drought risk assessment.

Keywords: Hydrological time series, eastern Slovakia, low flows, statistical analysis, trends, drought

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #44, pp. 417-422

Title of the Paper: Analysis of Interpolation Methods to Map the Long-Term Annual Precipitation Spatial Variability for the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation

Authors: Ivan Afanasev, Tcvetana Volkova, Alexey Elizaryev, Antonia Longobardi

Abstract: In meteorological modeling it is very important to have accurate data about the amount of precipitation over particular territory. This data can be obtained by the interpolation of the point sources. In this case several interpolation methods (inverse distance weighting, ordinary kriging, geo-regression and co-kriging) are used to map average long-term precipitation over Republic of Bashkortostan, a region of the Russian Federation. Data of more than 30 years of observations from 41 stations have been processed. Several variogram models for ordinary kriging and co-kriging methods have also been fitted. It was found out that no variogram in ordinary kriging method fits best to the observed amounts, the closest one is linear model. In order to make the geo-regression method, elevation of each station was taken. The correlation between elevation and precipitation of all points was not good enough, so cluster analysis was carried out to find out points with good correlation. Results of cluster analysis show small correlation between elevation and precipitation, despite that fact, results of geo-regression (when divided on 4 clusters) show better results, than IDW or kriging. Among all methods co-kriging with linear modeled variogram and which previously was divided by 4 clusters shows the closest result to observed amounts.

Keywords: Spatial analisys, interpolation methods, precipitation distribution, kriging, variogram, inverse distance weighting, geo-regression, co-kriging, cluster analysis, The Republic of Bashkortostan

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #43, pp. 405-416

Title of the Paper: Wet and Dry Deposition of Trace Elements in Two Sites in Carmen Island, Campeche, Mexico

Authors: J. G. Cerón-Bretón, R. M. Cerón-Bretón

Abstract: Wet and dry deposition samples were collected in two sampling sites (urban and mangrove forest) in Carmen Island, Campeche, Mexico from February to November, 2013. Samples were collected with an automatic wet/dry deposition sampler, using a device called DAS (Dry deposition on aqueous surfaces) that uses water as collection surface in the case of dry deposition. Wet deposition samples were collected daily, whereas dry deposition was collected on a weekly basis. In both cases, samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, NO3-, SO42- and Cl−. Calcium and nitrate were the most abundant ions, contributing in a great proportion to the total ionic mass. In both sampling sites, it was completely evident the influence of local sources, and in the case of the urban site, a local source (building activities) contributed to extremely high values of calcium. N deposition fluxes in both sampling sites exceeded the critical loads and the hemispheric background concentrations proposed for sensitive ecosystems and marine remote sites. Nitrogen total deposition at Carmen Island is already above of the upper extreme of the threshold value reported for sensitive ecosystems. Since only local sources drove the chemistry of the total deposition in both sampling sites, sulfate levels remained below of the background hemispheric values, suggesting that the contribution of regional sources of this ion was not significant. However, it is necessary to take local regulatory measures to avoid that total N deposition be a threat for the ecosystems in Carmen Island.

Keywords: Wet deposition, Dry deposition, Trace elements, Mangrove forests, Carmen Island, Campeche

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #42, pp. 393-404

Title of the Paper: Dam-Break Dry Granular Flows: Experimental and Numerical Analysis

Authors: Stefania Evangelista, Giovanni De Marinis, Cristiana Di Cristo, Angelo Leopardi

Abstract: Granular flows have been the subject of several researches in the last years, not only in fluvial hydraulics and risk management but also in many other engineering applications, such as, for instance, material stockpiling and freights, food manufacturing and industrial processes. This research is aimed at giving a contribution in the comprehension of such phenomena, through the analysis of the results of a specific campaign of small-scale laboratory experiments of dry granular flows produced by dam breaks conducted in the Laboratory of Water Engineering (LIA) at University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Italy, and of their numerical simulations. Tests have been performed with two different sands and different initial material heights in the reservoir. They provided data available for the validation of numerical models describing granular flows. Moreover, they may be used also for testing morphodynamic models adopted for the simulation of fluvial hydraulic processes in order to verify their capability of reproducing the behavior of the only solid phase. A depth-integrated two-phase model, originally developed for sediment transport in unsteady flows, is herein adopted to simulate the presented experiments. To this aim only the equations related to the solid phase are considered. The presented results show a reasonable agreement with the final configurations of the dry granular dam breaks experimentally observed.

Keywords: Dry granular, dam break, debris flows, laboratory experiments, numerical simulations, risk management

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #41, pp. 382-392

Title of the Paper: Uncertainties in Runoff Components Modelling and Frequency Analysis

Authors: Halmova D., Pekarova P., Pekar J., Miklanek P.

Abstract: Study is devoted to the long term basin water balance analysis of the Bela River up to the Podbanske gauge, and to the simulation of the monthly runoff and to estimation of its individual components in the monthly time step, during the 60 years period: 1945/46–2004/05. In the first part, water balance is set up in the monthly and yearly time step, based upon measured mean monthly discharge data from the gauging station Bela: Podbanske. Also mean monthly precipitation data over the Bela River basin were used. The second part of the study is focused on the selected runoff components modeling in the daily (HBV model), as well as monthly (model BILAN) time step, during the period 1945/46–2004/05. These models simulate hydrological processes by simplifying a catchment into series of connected storage reservoirs, where precipitation, air temperature and humidity are inputs, and the output is represented by streamflow at the catchment outlet. Both models describe observed runoff values relatively good. We achieved a sufficient agreement between observed and simulated values in regard to input data. Finally we focused on frequency analysis of daily observed and simulated discharges at gauging station Bela: Podbanske during the time period 1946–2010.

Keywords: hydrological balance, Bela River basin, runoff components separation, rainfall-runoff models

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #40, pp. 374-381

Title of the Paper: The Indoor Climate and Energy Consumption of Educational Buildings

Authors: Teet-Andrus Koiv, Alo Mikola, Ulli-Kaisa Karro

Abstract: The indoor climate of classrooms influences both students' comfort as well as learning performance. Four renovated schoolhouses with mechanical ventilation and a kindergarten with natural ventilation have been investigated. The study paid special attention to the carbon dioxide concentration in classrooms and the indoor air quality in group rooms in the kindergarten. The cumulative duration graph clearly shows high levels of carbon dioxide in the classrooms and in the kindergarten playrooms. Also data on the energy consumption of the school buildings and its reduction potential are presented. Air change in classrooms was determined by the change in carbon dioxide levels. The survey showed that in most classrooms the carbon dioxide level at the end of a class exceeds the normal level several times. At the same time, ventilation in classrooms is very much lower than normal. The situation is due to the poor economic situation of schools, as well as the modest level and bad adjustability of HVAC. In naturally ventilated kindergarten playrooms the CO2 concentration ranges to 2,500 ppm.

Keywords: Indoor climate, CO2 level in classrooms and kindergartens, cumulative graph, air change, specific energy consumption

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #39, pp. 366-373

Title of the Paper: Chromium Removal from Wastewater by Reverse Osmosis

Authors: Pavel Kocurek, Karel Kolomazník, Michaela Bařinová

Abstract: This study describes the removal of chromium from wastewater using pressure-driven membrane separation processes. It describes the rejection of trivalent chromium using a commercial membrane for reverse osmosis typed RO98pHt (Alfa Laval, Sweden). Model solutions of chromium were used for performing of separation experiments. The effects of feed pH, chromium concentration and temperature were investigated and conductivity values of all streams were observed. The results showed that pH of the feed solution and the form of occurrence have influence on the stability of dissolved particles with possible negative impact on membrane fouling. The stability of prepared solutions was managed by the diagram of area of prevailing existence. Membrane rejected almost 100% of Cr(III) at various pH values using 100 mg.L-1 model solution, operating pressure 1.5 MPa and at temperature 20°C. Similar results showed separation experiments using various Cr(III) concentration from 10 till 560 mg.L-1 and pH=5±0.2. Increase of operating temperature causes higher permeate flux and has no significant influence on the rejection level of Cr(III). Obtained results show differences between various feeds separations containing the same pollutant and usage possibility of reverse osmosis for wastewater treatment.

Keywords: chromium, tanning, pollutant, membrane separation, reverse osmosis, wastewater treatment, leather industry

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #38, pp. 358-365

Title of the Paper: Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Carbonyl Compounds and Air Criteria Pollutants in Monterrey, Mexico

Authors: J. G. Cerón-Bretón, R. M. Cerón-Bretón

Abstract: Carbonyl compounds levels (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) were measured in an urban site located in Monterrey Mexico using an active sampling during winter and spring, 2013. A total of 39 samples were collected using DNPH-cartridges at 09:00 h, 12:00 h and 15:00 h, and then analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). CO, O3, NO, NO2, NOx, and SO2 were measured by automatic analyzers during the sampling period. Formaldehyde was found to be the most abundant carbonyl. Both carbonyls showed clear diurnal and seasonal patterns. Formaldehyde mean concentrations were 35.74 + 4.37, and 33.67 + 3.92 for spring and winter, respectively. Whereas, acetaldehyde mean concentrations were 25.68 + 2.18, and 28.31 +7.91 for spring and autumn, respectively. Levels of carbonyls were higher when wind blew from WSW, where heavy traffic avenues, a railway and electric power companies are located. These sources could influence the levels of carbonyls measured in this study.

Keywords: Carbonyls, ozone, criteria pollutants, air pollution, Monterrey, COVs

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #37, pp. 347-357

Title of the Paper: The Analysis of the Factors Valid for Quality of Harvested Rainwater from University Building's Roof and Roofing Material Simulation

Authors: Daniela Kaposztasova, Gabriel Markovic, Ahmidat Mohamed, Zuzana Vranayova

Abstract: This article describes the simulation of roofing material influence on the quality and quantity of rainfall water in the area of Kosice-City. It offers deep analysis of the factors valid for quality of harvested rainwater from university building`s roof and also the analysis of simulation of two model with ceramic roofing tile and organic coated metal roofing.

Keywords: Rainwater harvesting, rainwater harvested from surface runoff, quality of water, roofing material

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #36, pp. 341-346

Title of the Paper: Comparison between Different Photovoltaic Solar-Assisted Heat Pumps (PVT-SAHP) Configurations with Retrofitted Photovoltaic Panels

Authors: Cecilia Rossi, Mattia De Rosa, Vincenzo Bianco, Federico Scarpa, Luca A. Tagliafico

Abstract: The aim of present study is to investigate different methodologies to retrofit photovoltaic modules (PV), in order to ensure a good cooling effect by adding a thermal plate in the back side of the PV panel to collect heat, thus obtaining a thermal photovoltaic module (PVT). The most promising perspective of this technology is to couple it with a heat pump, in order to obtain a photovoltaic thermal solar-assisted heat pump (PVT-SAHP) system. This work proposes an investigation of three different solutions to retrofit commercial PV panels. A thermography analyses has been performed in order to verify the cooling effect on the PV module. Results show that retrofitting of existing photovoltaic panels represents an interesting approach in order to employ very simple solutions to increase the overall efficiency of PV system, especially by coupling it with a heat pump. Finally, in order to study the effective potential of this technology, three different system configurations have been compared in terms of primary energy efficiency, namely a photovoltaic solar assisted heat pump (PVT-SAHP), a solar assisted heat pump (SAHP) and an air-to-water heat pump with a separate set of photovoltaic panels.

Keywords: Energy System, Heat Pump, Hybrid panel, PV retrofitting, Thermography, PV-SAHP

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #35, pp. 329-340

Title of the Paper: Photovoltaics Panels – Economic Return Based on the Real Effectiveness

Authors: P. Chrobák, M. Zálešák, M. Opluštil, S. Sehnálek, J. Vincenec

Abstract: This article examines the efficiency of photovoltaic panels in a real environment and their economic returns over their lifetime. Introductory section describes the general principle of converting sunlight into electricity and judged the system on which measurements were taken. The next part deals with the determination of the efficiency of photovoltaic panels and this issue of conversion of the direction of the solar radiation flow on a horizontal surface of a solarimeter towards the direction normal to the plane surface of the photovoltaic panels is described. On the basis of this transfer can be determined by the total global radiation falling on the surface of the PV panels and determine their true effectiveness. It is described effects of air pollution on the efficiency of PV panels. The last section deals with the economic return assessed system.

Keywords: photovoltaics, economical evaluation, photodiode, cell, solar radiation, azimuth, pollution, efficiency, invertor

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #34, pp. 320-328

Title of the Paper: Assessment of Radiation Hazard Indices and Excess Life Time Cancer Risk due to Dust Storm for Al-Najaf, Iraq

Authors: Ali Abid Abojassim Al-Hamidawi

Abstract: Dust storm is a meteorological phenomenon common in Al-Najaf city of Iraq. This study investigates the presence of long-lived gamma emitters in dust storms samples, and estimates radiation hazed indices. Dust storm samples were collected from the Iraqi weather of 2013. After proper lab treatment, the samples underwent gamma spectroscopy, where the targeted radionuclides were 228U, 232Th, and 40K. The average of specific activity in the collected dust storms samples was found the range from (237.166±5.834) to (368.689±17.697) Bq/Kg with an average value of (308.168±46.124) Bq/Kg for 40K, 238U specific activity range from (11.531±2.080) to (34.997±2.683) Bq/Kg with an average value of (21.4775±8.406) Bq/Kg and 232Th specific activities range from (2.805±0.370) to (11.162±1.638) Bq/Kg with an average of (5.446±2.738) Bq/Kg and. The average value of the radium equivalent was found (52.994±13.041) Bg/Kg, while the average value of the external hazard index, internal hazard index ,representative level index, absorbed dose in air and annual effective dose in outdoorwere found (0.224±0.0569), (0.201±0.057) , (0.202±0.048), (26.384±6.263) nGy/h and (0.0324±0.007185 )mSv/y respectively. The range value of the Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk was found from(0.0762194 ) to (0.144037637 ) with an average (0.1132494±0.025147 ). The obtained the Radiation Hazard Indices and Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk are found to agree with those reported in the international level.

Keywords: dust storms, Al-Najaf, Natural radioactivity, Gamma-ray spectroscopy

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #33, pp. 312-319

Title of the Paper: Feasibility Study of Using Rice Husk and its Treated Forms with Alkali Solution as a Desiccant Material

Authors: Zeynab Emdadi, Nilofar Asim, Zatil Amali Che Ramali, M. A. Yarmo, Roslinda Shamsudin, K. Sopian

Abstract: The utilization of industrial and agricultural waste and byproduct and natural fibers has been attracted many researchers interest because of its economic benefits and tackling environment issue both. In this study, the feasibility of using rice husk and its treated form with alkali solution as a desiccant material has been investigated. The bare RH and treated RH have been characterized using FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA, and SEM. The ability of water absorbance for the prepared samples has also been considered that water absorption test was carried out. The results revealed higher water absorbance of alkali treated RH compared to the bare RH. Currently, the work is focused on determining superior treatment conditions of treating RH involving more characterization methods.

Keywords: Agricultural wastes, Alkali treated, Desiccants, Rice Husk, Treated Rice Husk, water absorbance

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #32, pp. 306-311

Title of the Paper: Statistical Trends of Precipitation in Chosen Climatic Station in Slovakia and Libya

Authors: Martina Zeleňáková, Pavol Purcz, Helena Hlavatá, Ibrahim Gargar, Maria Manuela Portela

Abstract: This paper deals with the research of monthly precipitation trends in climatic stations in Libya and Slovakia. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall statistic test was applied to detect trends and to assess the significance of the trends in the time series. The evaluation was done for the time period from November to October. Trend analysis of rainfall data series for 1970–2010 did not show any clear trend for Libya as a whole although mainly decrease in precipitation was proved. It is clear that slight climatic changes may have affected the magnitude and timing of the precipitation within the study area. High statistically significant negative values appear in November and high statistically significant positive values appear in January. Trends analysis in precipitation data in eastern Slovakia was carried out in the time period 1981–2010. Data used in the present study were acquired from Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute. Almost all the gauging stations in Slovakia show positive trend of monthly precipitation. The increase of precipitation – significant positive trend – was proved in stations Turňa nad Bodvou, Mníšek nad Hnilcom, Veľký Folkmár. Significant positive trend in precipitation is proved in July. Decreasing trend is demonstrated only in March.

Keywords: Climatic stations, Libya, Mann-Kendall test, monthly precipitation data, Slovakia

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #31, pp. 298-305

Title of the Paper: Saving Potential of Reused Batteries by Waste Production

Authors: Robert Bata, Radko Kříž

Abstract: The amount of waste generated in the production and social sphere is for many reasons still increasing. Therefore, it is necessary to find new approaches how could be this amount reduced and find certain measures by which this production will be regulated. One of biggest problem of the waste management is related to portable batteries, The aim was to verify whether the selected number of batteries that had been submitted for recycling were been really useless or just damaged by improper use.

Keywords: Accumulators, recovery, waste disposal, savings, waste reduction

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #30, pp. 288-297

Title of the Paper: Analysis of Citizens’ Qualitative Risk Assessment for the Development of Environmental Risk Communication in Contaminated Sites

Authors: Janmaimool Piyapong, Tsunemi Watanabe

Abstract: Investigations on stakeholders’ risk judgments potentially provide basic understanding on how to develop integrated risk management and risk communication strategies. This study investigates factors affecting laypeople’s risk perception. The model for investigations was created in order to examine relationship between laypeople’s risk perception and its determinants. In this model, the relationship between lay peoples’ risk perception and potential predictive factors, including socio-demographic characteristics of laypeople and factors related to the nature of risks (perceived probability of environmental contaminations, probability of receiving impacts, and severity of catastrophic consequences), were examined by means of multiple regression analysis. Psychological and cognitive factors, such as the ability to control the risk, concern, experiences, perceived benefits of industrial development, and social trust were also included in the analysis. The observations have been carried out in the Maptaphut municipality in Rayong Province, Thailand. 181 questionnaire sheets were distributed to residents who live in industrial communities. The results showed that the laypeople’ risk perception was constructed based on their perceived severity of catastrophic consequences, and perceived probability of receiving impacts; however, people in low-risk communities perceived risks based on their experimental processing system which is influenced by their collective experiences and social trust.

Keywords: Qualitative Risk Assessment, Integrated Risk Management, Collaborative Environmental Risk Communication, Risk Perception

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #29, pp. 274-287

Title of the Paper: Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the Malaysian Architecture Industry

Authors: M. F. I. Mohd-Nor, Michael P. Grant

Abstract: For the past quarter century, the architecture profession have seen tremendous developments in skills level, work processes and professional culture with the adoption of digital technologies. Investment in technology has always been to improve effectiveness in practice and increase performance in the design/build process that yields a return of investment at the end of the day. Today, more and more digital technologies have been developed and created to accommodate the high demands of the market over the years, including Building Information Modelling (BIM). This research paper aims to look into the insight of how architect firms in Malaysia are coping up with the introduction of BIM in the country. The main approach is by conducting a nationwide survey on all the architectural firms in Malaysia and the findings will be used as a foundation for further research on the matter. High quality research is needed to help justify the usage of this new technology within the country.

Keywords: Building Information Model (BIM), Computer Aided Design, Graphic Editor, Software, 2D Drafting, 3D Modeling and Rendering

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #28, pp. 264-273

Title of the Paper: Higher Body Anatomical Distribution of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation on Farm Workers

Authors: G. Nardini, D. Neri, M. Paroncini

Abstract: Many workers perform their daily activities outdoors undertaking different postures and many anatomical body sites are UVR exposed. This paper aims to compare the anatomical distribution of the solar erythemal UVR to the higher half of the body for farm workers during their usual working activity in agriculture. This research was carried out in the experimental farm“Azienda Agraria Didattico-Sperimentale” of Università Politecnica delle Marche. Measurements of solar ultraviolet radiation and ultraviolet radiation exposure received by some particular anatomical sites in the higher half of the body were investigated using a spectrometer and personal dosimeters. The measurements were carried out for seven months in 2012 for a period of time that goes from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. characterized by the highest UVR levels. The results indicated that the UVR exposure at the nape of the neck shows higher values than the other anatomical sites.

Keywords: Agriculture;farm workers;UVR exposure

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #27, pp. 256-263

Title of the Paper: Aerogation: Crop Root-Zone Aeration through Subsurface Drip Irrigation System

Authors: P. Vyrlas, M. Sakellariou-Makrantonaki, D. Kalfountzos

Abstract: Subsurface drip irrigation as a source that provides the water directly to the root zone develops a saturated wetted front in the rhizosphere, particularly when the irrigation is close to 100% of evapotranspiration. Long duration irrigations collect root development around the drip emitters and relatively low hydraulic conductivity, mainly in heavy soils, lead to preservation of saturation in the root layer, resulting in lack of air, which is detrimental to the function of roots and directly influences crop development. The objective of this study is to examine whether the root zone aeration can improve the distribution of moisture in the soil thereby improving plant performance. For the investigation of this approach, a three-year experimental research was conducted, in a sugar beet crop, irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system. A technique for ventilating the root zone was developed, which comprises passing air in the irrigation water throughout the duration of irrigation using a venturi device and air supply under pressure after irrigation through a compressor. The air application (aerogation) affected the soil moisture in the root zone reducing the water content or repelled the water from the proximal environment of the emitter. Regarding the crop yield characteristics, the continuous air application gave a higher yield, although not statistically significant, than the conventional (without air) irrigation and aeration at the end of irrigation.

Keywords: Soil aeration, Drip irrigation, Soil wetting, Sugar beet

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #26, pp. 250-255

Title of the Paper: The Analysis of the Possible Use of Harvested Rainwater and its Potential for Water Supply in Real Conditions

Authors: Gabriel Markovič, Daniela Kaposztásová, Zuzana Vranayová

Abstract: Activities such as flushing toilets, washing floors or cars, irrigation orlaundry can be easily replaced by rainwater instead of precious drinking water. Continuous growth of population and consequent growing need for drinking water is a global problem. Taking into account that there are still 768 million people in the world without access to water and there are still more than 2.5 billion people without access to improved sanitation[10], any way to save drinking waterhas a great importance.

Keywords: Rainwater, runoff, coefficient, drinking water, rainfall, measuring

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #25, pp. 242-249

Title of the Paper: Economic Implications of Climate Change for Agricultural Productivity

Authors: Maurizio Lanfranchi, Carlo Giannetto, Angela De Pascale

Abstract: The agriculture sector is highly exposed to climate change and, consequently, to its risks. The climate risk is capable of altering other risks such as asset depletion (damage and loss to assets as a result of extreme climate events), price risks (risk of falling or rising prices) and financial risk (from possible increase of interest rates). Based on the assumption that climate changes indirectly affect the level of income through losses in capital, a Cobb-Douglas production function has been employed, using the different forms of capital as inputs. In particular, using a Cobb-Douglas production function and the marginal rate of technical substitution, the possibility to replace the use of irrigation water with the use of other inputs has come to light. The knowledge of these connections allows both a better use of water resources, and a more efficient use of other productive resources.

Keywords: Agricultural Economics, Climate Change, Agricultural Productivity, Production Function, Elasticity, Vulnerability, Adaptive Capacity

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #24, pp. 233-241

Title of the Paper: Analyse Options for Relationship between Sustainability Development Indicators

Authors: Bohuslav Sekerka, Ilona Obršálová, Robert Bata

Abstract: The paper focuses to analysis of relation between pollution produced by economic subjects and GDP. It is shown that it is possible to calculate the dependency of pollution on GDP. The method is based on the smoothing of time series of GDP and values of pollution per of GDP It is possible use instead of GDP the Total production, of course. These coefficients are needed when we use Input-Output models in consideration about environmental problems.

Keywords: Pollution indicator, GDP, linear smoothing, time series

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #23, pp. 223-232

Title of the Paper: Seawater Intrusion and Nitrate Pollution in Coastal Aquifer of Almyros – Nea Anchialos Basin, Central Greece

Authors: Gounari Christina, Skordas Konstantinos, Gounaris Alexandros, Kosmidis Dimitrios, Karyoti Aikaterini

Abstract: The exploitation of groundwater resources is of high importance and has become very crucial the last decades especially in coastal areas of Central Greece, due to urbanization, tourist development and intensive agriculture. The phenomenon of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is a significant environmental issue in Greece that nowadays is considered as pollution of groundwater, which could pose a threat to human’s health through direct consumption or through irrigation processes. The objectives of this study are to identify and investigate the extent of seawater intrusion in the Nea Anchialos basin inCentral Greece. For this purpose, 45 groundwater samples were collected from the study area and analyzed for certain parameters that indicated salinisation of the aquifers. Specifically, water chemical analysis were conducted and statistical analysis regarding spatial distribution were performed. The results demonstrated increased values of the parameters which can be attributed to seawater intrusion. Laboratory analyses indicated that Electrical Conductivity,concentration forthe basic cations (Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+and K+), HCO3-, Cl-, and SO4-2varied greatly. Furthermore, maximum NO3-concentration was 138 mg/Land this can be attributed to overexploitation of coastal aquifer for agricultural activities. The results indicated seawater intrusion in the north-eastern part of the study area. Hydrochemical maps were compiled using SURFER version 7 Software, based on models Shepard and Inverse Distance to a Power (IDP), in order to present the results in an integrated way and demonstrate the “hotspots” of pollution.

Keywords: Seawater Intrusion, Groundwater,Salinisation, Irrigation, Coastal Aquifer

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #22, pp. 211-222

Title of the Paper: Prediction of Slag Occurrence in a Lignite-Fired Utility Boiler

Authors: Pakamon Pintana, Nakorn Tippayawong

Abstract: Lignite from Mae Moh mine is the largest source of solid fuel for electricity generation in Thailand. It is used in pulverized coal-fired boilers of a 2400 MW thermal power plant. Its high CaO content in ash is a major concern that can affect severe slagging. In this paper, potential of slag occurrence in the power plant was investigated by numerical simulation. The FactSage thermochemical package was used to predict ash and slag behaviour, as well as ash fusion temperature. A commercial CFD package was also employed to simulate gas velocity and temperature distribution, particle trajectory and temperature, and wall heat flux in a utility boiler of the power plant. The results were found to show good quantitatively and qualitatively prediction of slag formation. They can be applied to predict slag deposition inside the boiler effectively.

Keywords: Slag, lignite, pulverized coal-fired boiler, coal combustion, FactSage simulation, CFD simulation

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #21, pp. 202-210

Title of the Paper: Part Sheet Usage in the Assembly Process of Small Hydro Power Plants

Authors: Ivan Szilva, Dagmar Cagáňová, Paul Woolliscroft

Abstract: Europe leans towards cleaner and more efficient energy production. The Renewable Energy Sources Directive of European Union sets mandatory national targets for renewable energy shares of final energy consumption in 2020. This fact makes the investments into renewable power not only inevitable, but also viable because of the guaranteed feed-in tariffs. These facts, together with the financial burden of mega projects in hydro power business made an investments into small and micro hydro power plants a viable option. Since each day a power plant is not running produces a noticeable loss in the power output which consequently results into a financial loss, each action, that can make a power plant feed the electricity into the grid sooner is highly valued. To ensure a faster assembly time a series of work sheets have been developed, these shall make the turbine assembly faster, downtimes shorter and the whole process more efficient.

Keywords: Part sheet, small hydro, hydro power, Slovakia, assembly, efficiency

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #20, pp. 197-201

Title of the Paper: A Numerical Procedure for the Preliminary Design of a ORC Power Plants with Positive Displacement Expanders

Authors: T. Donateo, A. Fazio

Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle power plants use organic, high molecular mass fluids to allow heat recovery from lower temperature sources such as industrial waste heat, geothermal heat, solar etc. The expansion process is usually carried out by axial or radial turbines. However, when the available thermal power is less than 1000 kW, the usage of positive-displacement expander becomes more suitable. In the present investigation, only Scroll expanders have been taken into account. A model has been developed to evaluate the efficiency and the performance of both the overall ORC power plant and the positive displacement expander. A multi-objective genetic algorithm is used for the optimization of the power plant to select the main design parameter of the plant like evaporator pressure, overheating, thermal recovering, mass flow rate etc. The power plant has been optimized based on the local radiating solar energy distribution obtained by statistical data on the local site (Lecce - Italy) during the year 2007. Several alternative refrigerants, such as R123, R245fa and R134a have been taken into account.

Keywords: ORC, positive displacement expander, multi-objective optimization, solar energy

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #19, pp. 186-196

Title of the Paper: A New Fuzzy Weighted Based Computation for Environmental Performance: A Case of ASEAN Countries

Authors: Lazim Abdullah

Abstract: Environmental Performance Index (EPI) has been introduced since 2006 to depict the environmental performance for most of the countries in the world. The index considers ten policy categories associated with environmental public health and ecosystem sustainability. The main mathematics operation in establishing EPI is arithmetic mean of all ten policy categories. However, this operation carries a potential disadvantage as it may neglects some extreme values in policy categories data and also employs equal weight for policy categories in obtaining EPI scores. To illustrate the issue of weight in computing environmental performance, this paper proposes intuitionistic fuzzy entropy weight method in calculating environmental performance to determine the weight of country and compares the weight of EPI as computed by the proposed weighted-based fuzzy entropy with the proximity to target formula and a decision making method. The original data of EPI among nine ASEAN countries are selected to illustrate the computation. The entropy weight of country and dual memberships of intuitionistic fuzzy sets are considered as the important properties in this computation. A new weight of EPI among ASEAN countries show that Singapore is the best country in environmental performance followed by Brunei. The proposed method may offer an alternative measure in evaluating environmental performance particularly for ASEAN countries.

Keywords: Environmental sustainability, Environmental Performance Index, weight entropy, ASEAN countries, intuitionistic fuzzy entropy

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #18, pp. 177-185

Title of the Paper: Using of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in the Ecosystems Assessment on the Landscape Level: Case Study from the Czech Republic

Authors: Vilém Pechanec, Ivo Machar, Aleš Vávra, Helena Kilianová

Abstract: Remote sensing and GIS (geographical information systems) are very important methods for assessment of changes and development of ecosystems in the landscape level. This article deals with applying of remote sensing and GIS methods to assessment of ecosystems in agricultural landscape in the Horňácko region, extending to the White Carpathians Mountains Protected Landscape Area (Czech Republic). The aim of this work was to identify and evaluate the state and development of the permanent grass herbages in the Horňácko region (Czech Republic) on the basis of historical and present geodata, aerial and satellite images and other available materials. With the help of the landscape-ecological indices, we are able to describe the state and structure of the permanent grass of geoinformation technologies, especially by employing the GIS and remote sensing. The values of the ecological indices were obtained by application of GIS tools like the Patch Analyst extension, Vector-based Landscape Analysis Tools extension and Image/Spatial Analyst.

Keywords: GIS methods, land use, ecosystem, landscape indicators, remote sensing

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #17, pp. 169-176

Title of the Paper: Construction of an Unpaved Road Using Industrial By-Products (Bauxite Residue)

Authors: Fotini Kehagia

Abstract: Utilisation of bauxite residue, the secondary material of alumina production, has been the object of numerous research efforts striving to introduce the by-product in useful applications. In fact, bauxite residue is used today in fabrication of ceramics, in cement production as a colouring agent and in abandoned quarries as a filling material. On the contrary, rare are the research initiatives to date aiming to a potential application of the by-product in highway engineering, a sector capable of absorbing large quantities in earthwork contraction. The Highway Engineering Laboratory of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH) focused on the potential use of this by-product in road construction. This paper details the construction of a gravel road using bauxite residue in the vicinity of the "Aluminium of Greece" industrial plant. The aim of this pilot project was to construct a pavement made of the by-product, trafficable for trucks and other vehicles, resistant to heavy traffic loads and durable to variable climatic conditions and especially to erosion. The layer of bauxite residue applied was processed by fly-ash (3%) and reinforced by bauxite aggregates to provide additional bearing capacity. The success of the project, acknowledged three years after construction, unveils the right balance achieved between technically excellent result and environmentally beneficial solution.

Keywords: By-Product, Bauxite Residue, Gravel Road, Environment

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #16, pp. 160-168

Title of the Paper: A New Method Voltage and Frequency Regulation of Self-Excited Induction Generator Operating in Stand Alone

Authors: Dhikra Chermiti, Adel Khedher

Abstract: Renewable Energy and Electric Vehicles (RELEV) (1) High Institute of Applied Sciences & Technology of Sousse (ISSATS) (2), Cité Taffala, Ibn Khaldoun, 4003 Sousse-TUNISIA National Engineering School of Sousse (ENISO) (3), Route de Ceinture Sahloul, Cité Hammam Maarouf, 4054 Sousse-TUNISIA, Abstract:- This paper proposes a new method to analyze the steady performance of a stand-alone self-excited induction generator (SEIG). The entire system consists on a three-phase induction generator excited with three capacitors-bank and an inductive load. The non linear equations are firstly developed by applying the nodal current approach to the per-phase induction generator, the eventual set of equations is solved using the Newton Raphson algorithm. Simulation results obtained by the proposed method revealed an important effect of several parameters on the self-excitation process. In fact, the load impedance, the prime mover speed and the excitation capacitance value have a direct impact on the terminal voltage and the output frequency of the induction generator. Based on these results, a simple voltage regulation strategy is suggested in order to operate at a fixed power range within tolerable voltage limits.

Keywords: Induction generator, self-excitation, capacitors-bank, voltage regulation, output frequency

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #15, pp. 150-159

Title of the Paper: Development and Investigation of the Moebius Strip in Tensioned Membrane Structures

Authors: Hooi Min Yee, Samsudin

Abstract: Tensioned membrane structure in the form of Moebius strip can be considered as a sustainable development for the green environment and technology, it also can be used to support the effectiveness used of energy and the structure. Sustainable development of tensioned membrane green structure in the form of Moebius strip has been studied. Shape-finding of tensioned membrane surface bordered by Moebius strip is investigated. Moebius strip has the mathematical property of being non-orientable and with only one side and only one boundary component. In this research, the possibility of adopting the form of Moebius strip as surface shape for tensioned membrane structure has been scrutinised. The combination of shape and internal forces for the purpose of stiffness and strength is an important feature of tensioned membrane surface. For this purpose, shape-finding needs to be carried out. Nonlinear analysis method is used for shape-finding analysis in this research. Development and pattern of prestress in the resulting tensioned membrane surface is also studied. The development of Moebius strip problem has been able to overcome. Shape-finding has been found to converge for Moebius strip. It provides an alternative choice for engineer to consider the Moebius strip, radius over width = 0.7, 1.2, 1.7, 2.2 and 2.7 applied in tensioned membrane green structure.

Keywords: Shape-finding, Moebius strip, tensioned membrane, non-orientable, nonlinear analysis method and prestress

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #14, pp. 145-149

Title of the Paper: Zeolite and Mixed Oxide Catalysts for VOCs Oxidation

Authors: Jana Gaálová, Květuše Jirátová, Jan Klempa, Olga Šolcová, Irene Maupin, Jerome Mijoin, Patrick Magnoux, Jacques Barbier, Jr.

Abstract: Zeolite (NaX, NaX-CeO2) and mixed oxide (Co4MnAl, NiMgMn) catalysts were tested in catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The different kinds of catalysts proved remarkable activity in catalytic oxidation of ethanol and isopropanol respectively. The deepen comparison revealed that basic zeolite NaX-CeO2 is more suitable for oxidation of isopropanol while oxidation of ethanol is faster in a presence of the metal mixed oxides, Co4MnAl and especially NiMgMn. The results of catalytic testing were linked to certain catalysts´ properties. Basicity/acidity and oxygen storage capacity (OSC) appeared to be the crucial parameters for selected tested alcohol oxidation.

Keywords: Ethanol, Isopropanol, Metal mixed oxide, Oxidation, and Zeolite

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #13, pp. 135-144

Title of the Paper: Analysis of the Diurnal Distribution of Ultraviolet Exposure on Upper Body Anatomical Sites for Outdoor Workers

Authors: G. Nardini, D. Neri, M. Paroncini

Abstract: Many workers perform their daily activities outdoors and many anatomical body sites are exposed to UV radiation. The effects of solar radiation on human health depend on the amount and type of radiation impinging on the body. This paper aims to investigate and analyse the diurnal UV radiation exposure at typical anatomical site for farm workers. The diurnal distribution in solar UV exposure at the nape of the neck, forearm, forehead and cheek of farm workers was measured at 15 min intervals for consecutive working days from January to July 2012. The anatomical site most exposed was the nape of the neck. The UV exposure at the nape of the neck indicates that when SEA is about 54°, it may receive maximal exposures depending also on the particular anatomical site orientation and body movements. To better understand the diurnal distribution and variation of UV exposure, a correlation between solar elevation angle and UV exposure was investigated. The correlations were determined for each anatomical body sites with a R2 in a range between the 0.87 and 0.99. Real time exposure data suggest that it is useful to remind workers of the UV radiation risks associated with spending increased time in the sun exposure.

Keywords: Farm workers, UV radiation, solar elevation angle (SEA), correlation SEA UV exposure

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #12, pp.127-134

Title of the Paper: Radiation Doses Due to Natural Radioactivity in Selected Areas in Southern Part of Jordan

Authors: Abdul-Wali Ajlouni

Abstract: The present study introduces some data regarding Radiation Doses Due to Natural Radioactivity measured the investigations we have already carried out in Selected Areas in Southern Part of Jordan. The investigated area, which is 270 Km long, includes three governorates in Jordan: Tafila, Ma'an, and Aqaba. These data emphasis on new findings of different radiation dose rates, to mainly identify the potential and known impacts of exposures in these areas of this part of the country on public health, and also to make recommendations for further studies. A significant part of the total dose contribution in the form of natural sources comes from terrestrial gamma radionuclides. The measured absorbed dose rates in air were in the range of 10 –200 nSv/ h. The lowest absorbed external dose rate was on the water body of Gulf of Aqaba, while the highest was on the highway of the industrial zone south of Aqaba.

Keywords: Jordan, Tafila, Ma'an, Aqaba, natural radioactivity, external gamma dose, NaI(Tl) detector, low radiation

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #11, pp.123-126

Title of the Paper: Two Realistic Scenarios of Intentional Release of Radionuclides (Cs-137, Sr-90) - The Use of the HotSpot Code to Forecast Contamination Extent

Authors: D. Di Giovanni, E. Luttazzi, F. Marchi, G. Latini, M. Carestia, A. Malizia, M. Gelfusa, R. Fiorito, F. D’amico, O. Cenciarelli, A. Gucciardino, C. Bellecci, P. Gaudio

Abstract: There are several types of events that could result in dispersion of radioactive substances in the environment. The dispersion can be a consequence of a natural or intentional event. In case of radiological release the estimation of the contaminated area is very important to properly manage the rescue operations and decontamination by evaluating the impact on the population and environment. The extent of the contamination and impact on the environment and people mainly depends on the specific event and the radionuclide involved. Models and computational codes have been developed and hypothetical scenarios have been formulated for establishing priority of countermeasures and protective actions, determining generic operational guidelines and assessment of risks for population exposure. The aim of the present study is to illustrate the effects of two different cases of intentional release. Due to the lack of available real data, this is carried out through simulation of different scenarios by using a computer code named HotSpot; in fact literature data referring to real events of this kind are classified and cannot be disseminated. The first case consists in the release of Cs-137 from stacks of cement production industry, the second in the release of Strontium 90 from the explosion of a dirty bomb. The Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE), which includes external and internal contributions for the whole absorbed dose, and the contaminant Ground Deposition have been calculated for various atmospheric stability Pasquill categories [1], several distributions of contaminant particle size, different explosive quantity (dirty bomb case). Results have been analyzed and presented here. They indicate that atmospheric dispersion of a relatively small amount of Cs-137 has the potential to contaminate a relatively large area, while the explosion of a dirty bomb containing a large amount of a strontium 90, does not represent a problem in terms of direct contamination. In both cases the extent of contamination (area and activity) mainly depends on: particle size; the height of release and local weather conditions.

Keywords: Dispersion Models, Radionuclides, Atmospheric Release, Cesium 137, Strontium 90, HotSpot code

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #10, pp.106-122

Title of the Paper: Eco-Economic Analysis of Different Heating Systems for a New Housing Project

Authors: Amaryllis Audenaert, Sven De Cleyn, Liesje De Boeck

Abstract: Given the large energy consumption of energy heating for residential and commercial use in the world, optimising heating systems makes sense, both from an ecologic and an economic point of view. Therefore, this study evaluates five different space heating systems through a case study on a new housing project. The assessment comprises both economic factors (payback period as compared to a reference heating system) and ecologic (E-levels,K-value and CO2 emissions) under different energy price scenarios. The results clearly indicate that large differences occur, mainly driven by the yearly energy consumption of the systems. The more traditionally used systems with condensing heating systems with radiators or classical electric heating systems tend to perform worse than more recent systems with underfloor heating and/or heat pumps. These results are true for all scenarios with regard to the evolution of energy prices and are valid for both the ecologic and economic aspects.

Keywords: Space heating systems, economic evaluation, ecologic analysis, heat pump, condensing heating unit, underfloor heating, radiator, electric heating

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #9, pp.92-105

Title of the Paper: The Public Zoo as Recreation and Environmental Education Area: Visitor’s Perceptions and Management Implications

Authors: Paraskevi Karanikola, Stilianos Tampakis, Georgios Tsantopoulos, Christina Digbasani

Abstract: The present paper studies the perceptions of visitors to the zoo of Thessaloniki in relation to the animals and urban green areas. With the use of a questionnaire, the visitors evaluated the zoo as a recreation area, along with its suitability and its facilities for visitors. We have also recorded the level of satisfaction of zoo visitors with their visit, the distance they travelled for this purpose, and the frequency, time of year and duration of their visits. Visitors were asked their opinion on whether they agree with the operation of the zoo and then had to evaluate the contribution of the zoo in relation to entertainment, to getting children acquainted with animals and coming into contact with nature, to providing environmental education, to the existence of a shelter for injured animals and also concerning the breeding rate of animals at risk of extinction. The level of suitability of the zoo was also evaluated, along with the quality of its facilities. More specifically, visitors were asked to provide answers concerning ease of access to the site and the existence of a parking area, the total size of the zoo, its landscaping, the available infrastructure, and the services and security offered to visitors. These answers could serve as the base for better management of the zoo.

Keywords: Public zoo of Thessaloniki, frequency and duration of visits, quality of facilities, infrastructure, the animals’ living and hygiene conditions

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #8, pp.81-91

Title of the Paper: An Incentive Mechanism for Improving Urban Water Supply System

Authors: Jia Wang, Jiaoju Ge, Qiang Lu

Abstract: An essential challenge for many developing countries is improvement of water supply system to ensure urban water supply safety and reliability. Penalty, subsidy and water price increase are often considered as the main incentive measures for improving urban water supply system. However, the implementation of these policies is confronting some uncertainties because of the conflicts of involved actors. In order to find the most effective incentive mechanism for improving urban water supply system, this study conducts a game theoretical analysis to analyze the conflicts of interests between municipal government and a water company. The effects of penalty, subsidy and water price increase on behaviors of key stakeholders were obtained. The main findings are that water price and penalty are the effective tools to promote urban water supply system improvement, while subsidy policy is not useful. The conclusion has important policy implication for improving urban water supply system safety.

Keywords: Water supply system, incentive mechanism, equipment upgrade, China

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #7, pp.71-80

Title of the Paper: The Effect of Surfactants upon Spectrophotometric Monitoring of the Efficiency of Removal of Crude Petroleum Products from Waste Water by Means of Pressure-Driven Membrane Processes

Authors: Jaromíra Chýlková, Jiří Cuhorka, Petr Mikulášek

Abstract: In the presented research we have tested the application of photo ionization detector of ECOPROBE 5 analyzer to monitoring of low concentrations of petroleum products in water. Petroleum products are organic pollutants that are present in wastewater most frequently, which is caused by their broad applications and frequent incidents. Emergency leakage of petroleum and its products is predominantly caused by technical defects and operators’ mistakes during transport, handling and storage of petroleum products. We tested the application of the mobile analyzer ECOPROBE 5 (RS Dynamics, Prague), which measures concentrations of organic substances in gas phase. It is sufficiently sensitive even for determination of milligram amounts of petroleum products in one liter of water. This principle of measurement can serve, e.g., as a basis of emergency alarm during long-term operation of membrane technology.

Keywords: Crude petroleum products, waste water, pressure-driven membrane processes

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #6, pp.60-70

Title of the Paper: Sustainable Construction Waste Management Strategic Implementation Model

Authors: Jannatun Naemah Ismam, Zulhabri Ismail

Abstract: All stakeholders should participate in striving towards sustainable construction in order to embark upon the environmental impact issues. Since waste perceived as major obstacle particularly in the construction industry, the government is obligated to develop tools or model to enhance the quality of waste management during the construction life cycle. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework of sustainable construction waste management implementation. There were four components that have been identified in the conceptual framework; regulation, policy, technology and guideline. The established framework will react as mechanisms in strengthening the government performance. Furthermore, the framework helps in engaging all stakeholders to collaborate with the government in construction waste management implementation.

Keywords: Environmental impact, sustainable construction, waste management

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #5, pp.48-59

Title of the Paper: Equilibrium Isotherm Models for Adsorption of Zinc (II) Ion from Aqueous Solution on Pulp Waste

Authors: Panida Sampranpiboon, Pisit Charnkeitkong, Xianshe Feng

Abstract: The present investigation deals with the utilization of pulp waste as an adsorbent for the removal of zinc (II) ion from aqueous solution. A series of experiments were conducted in a batch system to evaluate the performance of the pulp waste for zinc removal. The effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration and temperature were evaluated. The optimum pH value for zinc (II) adsorption on the pulp waste was found to be pH 6.0. The equilibrium sorption data were analyzed using Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, Halsay, Hurkins- Jura, Redlich-Peterson, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Jovanovich isotherm models, and the Langmuir and Temkin models were found to be adequate in describing the zinc (II) adsorption onto the pulp waste.

Keywords: Adsorption, Equilibrium isotherm, Pulp waste, Zinc (II) ion, Langmuir, Temkin, Halsay, Hurkins-Jura, Redlich-Peterson, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Jovanovich

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #4, pp.35-47

Title of the Paper: Analysis of the Relationships among Motivation to Recycle, Willingness to Recycle, and Satisfaction with Recovery Stations in Taiwan

Authors: Ruey-Chyn Tsaur

Abstract: Recovery stations hold a key role in the recycling process. This study investigates the relationships among the motivation to recycle, user satisfaction with recovery stations, and willingness to recycle, with consideration of the mediation and moderation effects. We find a positive relationship between motivation to recycle and satisfaction with recovery stations, between satisfaction with recovery stations and willingness to recycle, and between motivation to recycle and willingness to recycle. In addition, we find that customer satisfaction with a recovery station is a mediating variable, and marital status is a moderating variable. Governmentsshould consider encouragingrecovery stations to improve customer-service satisfactionand should develop strategies for gettingunmarried people to recycle.

Keywords: Recovery station, motivation to recycle, willingness to recycle, mediation effect, moderation effect

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #3, pp.26-34

Title of the Paper: Feasibility of Saving Energy by Using VSD in HVAC System, A Case Study of Large Scale Hospital in Malaysia

Authors: M. M. S. Dezfouli, S. Moghimi, F. Azizpour, S. Mat, K. Sopian

Abstract: This study presents evaluation of energy saving, bill saving, payback period, and avoided emission by using Variable Speed Drive to standard motors in FCUs and AHUs of HVAC system in one of large scale medical centres (UKMMC) in Malaysia. It was found that the energy saving has direct relationship with percentage of speed reduction in drive as by 60% and 10% speed reduction can reach to maximum and minimum amount of energy saving respectively. The best size and amount of payback period, and energy saving, saving cost and emission reduction was found for 60% speed reduction. It has been evaluated that the total energy savings of 4963 KW/h, 917KW/h can be achieved in one year by using VSD with 60% speed reduction for AHUs and FCUs respectively. Also, it has been estimated that amounts of bill saving cost for AHUs and FCUs are US$496,323 and US$ 91,721. The payback periods for AHUs and FCU were 0.5 and 2.6 years.

Keywords: VSD (Variable Speed Drive) motors, HVAC system, Energy saving, Cost

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #2, pp.15-25

Title of the Paper: Natural Disasters´ Management and Detection of Priority Problems for Future Research

Authors: Dana Prochazkova

Abstract: Natural disasters threaten the humans from time immemorial. They are caused both by the processes in the Earth core and Earth surface, or in the atmosphere, and by the processes in the vicinity of the Planet. From the current knowledge it follows that in human system various phenomena take place in the development process that are the expression of its development or of the development of systems that create it. The research was targeted to natural disasters such as: avalanches; hot wet summer days; drought; dams rupture; floods; tsunami; earthquakes; volcanic eruptions; landslides; rocks tumbling down (rock fall); forest fires; wind storms; tornados; excessive rain or snow falls ; and gas erosions from the core. It identifies deficits at natural disaster management from the viewpoint of safe community concept that has been promoted by the EU since 2004.

Keywords: Human System, Natural Disasters, Management, Security, Safety, Unknowing the Disasters´ Management

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 10, 2014, Art. #1, pp.1-14