WSEAS Transactions on
Information Science and Applications

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Print ISSN: 1790-0832
E-ISSN: 2224-3402

Volume 11, 2014

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of WSEAS Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

Volume 11, 2014

Title of the Paper: Online Filtering and Uncertainty Management Techniques for RFID Data Processing

Authors: Razia Haider, Federica Mandreoli, Riccardo Martoglia

Abstract: RFID is one of the emerging technologies for a wide-range of applications, including supply chain and asset management, healthcare and intruder localization. However, the nature of an RFID data stream is noisy, redundant and unreliable, making it unsuitable for direct use in applications. In this paper, we propose specific RFID Online Filtering and Uncertainty Management techniques that operate on unreliable and imprecise data streams in order to transform them into reliable probabilistic data that can be meaningful to the applications. Our proposal makes use of an Hidden Markov Model (HMM) that continuously infers hidden variables (locations, in case of above example) based on sensor readings. The resulting data can be directly stored in a probabilistic database table for further analysis. All the techniques presented in this paper are implemented in a complete framework and succesfully evaluated in real-world object tracking scenarios.

Keywords: RFID data streams, Hidden Markov Model, Probabilistic Data Management, Object tracking

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #24, pp. 231-241

Title of the Paper: Patterns in the Requirements Engineering: A Survey and Analysis Study

Authors: Pranay Mahendra, Arbi Ghazarian

Abstract: Requirements patterns have recently been gaining popularity among research communities to help users in identifying, analysing and structuring requirements of a software system. While still in their early stage of development, organizing these patterns would not only assist practitioners in accessing patterns but also provide developers with a direction to design their patterns accordingly. In this paper, an extensive study of various pattern based methods for the requirements phase is reported. Their features, content, structure, purpose, role in assisting requirements engineering activities, similarities and differences are analyzed as we subsequently classify the constituting requirements patterns based on the kind of artefact they present to the user.

Keywords: Requirements Patterns, Requirements Engineering, Classification

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #23, pp. 214-230

Title of the Paper: Design and Implementation of Soil Loss System Based on RUSLE

Authors: Chen Jinxing, Yue Depeng, Shang Shu, Ma Mengchao

Abstract: Soil erosion is a serious hazard that causes damages to environment and causes other problems. To compute soil loss, a system that merges with geographic information system(gis) is developed. This program uses the model of Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE).It is built on Microsoft.NET Framework 4, combined with integrated secondary development tool ArcGIS Engnie 10.1.This program can compute the six RUSLE factors, namely rainfall erosivityfactor,vegetation cover management factor, soil erodibility factor, slope length factor, slope angle factor and conservation practice factor by inputting corresponding layers. The system provides visualization interface and it is easy to use .We use the data of Beijing as an example for application. The spatial distribution map of soil erosion is generated and it is classified into five levels, which can monitor the distribution of soil erosion patterns. The results are in line with the soil erosion tendency. The soil erosion map will facilitate the allocation of conservation resources and the enacting of relative regulations.

Keywords: Soil erosion, RUSLE, interpolation, slope length, ArcGIS Engnie, NDVI

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #22, pp. 204-213

Title of the Paper: Migration of the Perfect Cipher to the Current Computing Environment

Authors: Petr Voborník

Abstract: Algorithm of the perfect cipher has been known since the beginning of the last century. However, this procedure requires respecting of strict conditions that complicated the practical use of the cipher. Original conditions of Vernam perfect cipher will be discussed at first in detail in this article. The original approach of characters will then be transferred to the bit level. The modification of work with the encryption keys with the use of modern hash algorithms will be proposed so that the major factors that prevent the practical use of the cipher will be removed and most of their benefits will be preserved. The proposed new encryption algorithm will be subjected to the measurement of speed in conclusion, and these results will be compared with other known encryption algorithms.

Keywords: Perfect cipher, encryption, communication, Vernam, one-time pad, hash function

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #21, pp. 196-203

Title of the Paper: Research on The Prediction of Stock Market Based on Chaos and SVM

Authors: Cen Wan, Shanglei Chai

Abstract: The stock market is a very complex system, so it is necessary to use the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm with small sample learning characteristics. The stock market is also a chaotic system, whose financial time series data has chaotic characteristics of random, noise and strong nonlinear. However, the support vector machine for a given time series is usually not considered its chaotic characteristics, so that the regression results are easy to be disturbed and the accuracy is decreased. This paper fully takes into account the chaos characteristics of the stock market, and combines phase space reconstruction theory and support vector machine (SVM). The paper uses C-C algorithm to find the best time delay and the minimum embedding dimension as the input nodes of SVM and establish the chaps-SVM regression model of stock market. The experiment results with SSE (Shanghai Stock Exchange) Composite Index show that, the model can improve the prediction ability of the system with high precision accuracy and good results. This indicates that it is very promising of using the phase space reconstruction theory for economic prediction and it provides an effective method for the prediction of financial time series.

Keywords: Support vector machine (SVM); Chaos systems; Phase space reconstruction; Prediction

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #20, pp. 186-195

Title of the Paper: Software Development with Regards to Simulations: Are Interaction Features Needed for a Better Description of Actual Reality?

Authors: Milena Janakova

Abstract: This paper is centered on the optimal description of an actual reality for better support needed processes based on simulations. Data processing was, is and will be at the center of interest of all firms, organizations and individuals. The reasons are natural. There is an enormous amount of information, and orientation is very difficult with regards to data volume, variety and velocity. The selection of the correct way for optimal computational processing has a number of forms via preferences by actual conditions and IT user preferences. The better solutions are designed with support in cooperation with the global environment. The new approaches and ideas are often linked to innovations based on inspiration from swarm intelligence, trust in an agile method, or graphic support within the simulation. All such approaches help in software development and optimal implementation through settings and configuration, but many IT users have doubts about their real benefits in practice. They have problems with complexity, orientation, offered services, or timelines of obtained results and analyses. Based on this reality, there is a question about a better method for simulation design for optimal software development with regards to actual reality. These simulations are successfully used in software specification through needed objects. Standard objects are used for the description of the adopted resolution based on object features such as Name, Size, and Capacity. For actual reality description, there are other features needed with links on current context. Inspiration of this idea is based on pheromones from swarm intelligence like a point of interaction. These additional object features are oriented on practical preferences such as standard professional matter, cooperation, presentation, management, analytical matter, creativity, multicultural needs, services, and contact with the customer. Practical preferences then define the total priority of an object in a simulation. The benefit of the total priority of an object is a better relation to actual reality, and an optimal description of existing needs by preferences in a dynamic society. This approach offers a better way of software development like operating and database systems, or BI (Business Intelligence) and CRM (Customer Relationship Management) products.

Keywords: Global changes, object features, software development, swarm intelligence

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #19, pp. 177-185

Title of the Paper: Semi-Supervised Taxonomy Aware Integration of Catalogs

Authors: V. Jothi Prakash, L. M. Nithya

Abstract: The main task of online commercial portals and business search engines is the integration of products coming from various providers to their product catalog. The commercial portal has its own master taxonomy while each data provider classifies the products into provider taxonomy. Classification of products from the data provider into the master catalog by using the data provider’s taxonomy information is done by classifying the products based on their textual representations by using a simple text based classifier and then using the taxonomy information to adjust the results of the classifier to make sure that the products that are tied together in the provider catalog remain close in the master catalog. The taxonomy aware calibration takes place by tuning the values of three parameters k, θ and γ respectively. The major problem in classifying the products into the master taxonomy is the ability to identify candidate products for labeling. In this paper, we propose a Semi supervised learning methodology to overcome this problem by incrementally retraining the base classifier with parameters chosen during the taxonomy-aware calibration. Semi-supervised learning is a learning standard which deals with the study of how computers and natural systems such as human beings acquire knowledge in the presence of both labeled and unlabeled data. The proposed system finds each candidate parameter θi and then finds the optimal parameter γ such that the accuracy on the validation set is at the maximum. An experimental result shows that the Semi supervised learning algorithm is efficient and thus applicable to the large data sets on the web.

Keywords: Semi-supervised learning, catalog integration, classification, web taxonomy, data mining

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #18, pp. 169-176

Title of the Paper: Hybrid-Parallel Sparse Matrix–Vector Multiplication and Iterative Linear Solvers with the Communication Library GPI

Authors: Dimitar Stoyanov, Franz-Josef Pfreundt

Abstract: We present a library of Krylov subspace iterative solvers built over the PGAS-type communication layer GPI. The hybrid pattern is here the appropriate choice to reveal the hierarchical parallelism of clusters with multiand many- core nodes. Our approach includes asynchronous communication and differs in many aspects from the classical one. We first present the GPI-based implementation of the sparse matrix-vector multiplication and then, using as a benchmark the numerical solution of a Poisson boundary value problem in a unit cube, we compare the performance on Intel/Infiniband and CRAY XE6 architectures of our GPI-based Conjugate Gradients and Richardson methods against the ones available in PETSc. The results show good scalability and performance of our approach, at least comparable to these of PETSc.

Keywords: Multi-core clusters, PGAS, RDMA, GPI, hybrid-parallel iterative solvers, sparse matrix-vector multiplication, performance

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #17, pp. 160-168

Title of the Paper: Modified Adaptive Evolutionary Algorithm for Solving JSSP Problems

Authors: Vid Ogris, Tomaž Kristan, Davorin Kofjač

Abstract: A job-shop scheduling problem is one of the classic scheduling problems considered to be NP-hard. In this paper, we presenta modified adaptiveevolutionary algorithm (EA) that uses speculative mutations, variable fitness functions and a pseudo-random number generator for solving job-shop scheduling problems. The algorithm was tested on well-known benchmark datainstances, such as Ft10, La01, Swv01, etc., with the goal of achieving the shortest make-span. The results show that using speculative mutations and interval placing reduces the number of steps and computational time to achieve a (near) optimal make-span. Some testing results on an early version of the proposed algorithm are also added,whichwere used to define the most effective types of mutations to generate better offspring.

Keywords: Evolutionary algorithm, scheduling, job shop, variable fitness function, speculative mutations

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #16, pp. 149-159

Title of the Paper: A Network Differential Backup and Restore System based on a Novel Duplicate Data Detection Algorithm

Authors: Guiping Wang, Shuyu Chen, Jun Liu

Abstract: The ever-growing volume and value of data has raised increasing pressure for long-term data protection in storage systems. Moreover, the redundancy in data further aggravates such pressure in these systems. It has become a serious problem to protect data while eliminating data redundancy, saving storage space and network bandwidth as well. Data deduplication techniques greatly optimize storage systems through eliminating or reducing redundant data in these systems. As an improved duplicate data detection algorithm, SBBS (a sliding blocking algorithm with backtracking sub-blocks) enhances duplicate detection precision through attempting to backtrack the left/right quarter and half sub-blocks of matching-failed segments. Based on the SBBS algorithm, this paper designs and implements a network differential backup and restore system. It designs the structures of full and differential backup images. In addition, in order to fulfill the communication requirements of backup/restore on the Internet, this paper designs a protocol in Application Layer, referred as NBR (Network Backup and Restore Protocol). The experimental results show that, for three typical files, the designed backup and restore system respectively saves 9.7%, 11%, and 4.5% storage space compared with a differential backup system based on the traditional sliding blocking (TSB) algorithm.

Keywords: Full backup; Differential backup; Duplicate data detection; Sliding blocking algorithm; Matching-failed segment; NBR

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #15, pp. 139-148

Title of the Paper: Simulation of Self-Organizing Multi-Robotic System used for Area Coverage and Surround of Found Targets

Authors: Jolana Sebestyénová, Peter Kurdel

Abstract: Self-organizing robotic systems are able to accomplish complex tasks in a changing environment through local interactions among individual agents and local environment. If a robot views a target or senses the target according to used sensor, it necessitates information whether this target is already guarded on by any other robot. If not, the robot remains to stay (it starts to guard on and raises the attraction of the target cell as well as of its outskirts). If yes, robot continues in walking around the target - one target may cover more cells. One robot can guard on more than one target cells according to its sensors ranges. The robots guarding on found target cells not only need to see the target, they also need to see each other to form a secure surround. In the proposed model, field vector-based area coverage is used in combination with search and surround of some targets distributed in the area.

Keywords: Area coverage, Autonomous mobile robots, Self-organizing multi-robot system, Surround of searched targets

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #14, pp. 130-138

Title of the Paper: Miniaturized UWB Microstrip Antenna for Microwave Imaging

Authors: Radouane Karli, Hassan Ammor, Jamal El Aoufi

Abstract: This article presents the design of a miniaturized microstrip antenna for microwave medical imaging applications. We propose a miniature rectangular printed antenna that meets the UWB characteristics in terms of bandwidth and reflection coefficient. This antenna is designed for a system to detect malignant tumors by microwave imaging. We use certain techniques of miniaturization and expansion of bandwidth in order to achieve our intention. The antenna has an ordinary rectangular radiating patch, therefore displays a good omnidirectional radiation pattern. The proposed antenna exhibits good UWB characteristics and has the capability of operating from 2.68GHz to 12.06GHz.

Keywords: UWB, microstrip antenna, miniaturized, microwave medical imaging

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #13, pp. 122-129

Title of the Paper: An Efficient Kd-tree Building Algorithm base on VRDH for Ray Tracing

Authors: Yue Cao, Leiting Chen, Xiao Liang

Abstract: The Surface Area Heuristic (SAH) is regarded as a standard heuristic for building acceleration structure for ray tracing. However, its assumption of uniform ray distribution is a gross simplification and might lead to unnecessary intersection tests. In this paper, we consider ray distribution and propose a novel heuristic based on Visual Ray Distribution Heuristic (VRDH) to build a high-quality kd-tree. Because only the rays intersecting with primitives will contribute to final image, we distinguish types of rays according to intersection results and improve cost metric through only estimating traversal cost of visual rays. Since the knowledge of ray distribution is only available during tracing process, temporal coherence is exploited. We construct an auxiliary 3D grid structure to sample visibility. The knowledge in grid in frame k is employed to build kd-tree of frame k + 1. Additionally, the boundaries of voxels in grid are regarded as main splitting candidates as well as two strategies are presented to choose more optimal splitting planes. The experimental results indicate that our algorithm can reduce the number of ray-primitive intersection tests by 20%-66%, meanwhile make a speedup of approximately 20% for scene with 300K primitives for overall frame performance.

Keywords: Ray distribution, visual ray, 3D grid, ray tracing

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #12, pp. 112-121

Title of the Paper: Parallel Model for Rabbit Stream Cipher over Multi-Core Processors

Authors: Khaled Suwais

Abstract: This paper presents a new parallel model for Rabbit stream cipher. The goal of this model is to enhance the performance of Rabbit cipher by accelerating its keystream generation and encryption processes. The underlying concept of the new model was built based on utilizing multi-core processors to generate multiple keystreams simultaneously. The results showed that the new parallel model could enhance the encryption speed of Rabbit of about 1.4, 1.6 and 2.3 times on single, dual and quad core processors.

Keywords: Parallel processing, Multi-core processors, Rabbit cipher, Stream cipher, Multithreading

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #11, pp. 104-111

Title of the Paper: On the Security of Yoon and Yoo’s Biometrics Remote User Authentication Scheme

Authors: Ming Liu, Wen-Gong Shieh

Abstract: With the prevalence of electronic and mobile commerce, remote user authentication has become an essential component in identifying the legality of the log in user. Recently, Yoon and Yoo criticized the biometric-base authentication system proposed by Khan and Zhang that it is doubtful to parallel session attack and privileged insider’s attack. Yoon and Yoo therefore proposed an improved scheme to correct Khan-Zhang’s scheme. In addition, Yoon-Yoo’s scheme largely reduced the computation cost of Khan-Zhang’s scheme. In this paper, we demonstrate that the Yoon-Yoo’s scheme is still vulnerable to offline password guessing attack to break the protocol. First, storing the fingerprint template in the smart card for fingerprint verification is not a good idea in Yoon-Yoo’s scheme. Considering when the contents of the smart card are obtained by an adversary. Second, with the value from the previous valid login message, it allows the adversary to perform offline password guessing attack using the equation. Our study further proposed a secure improvement of Yoon-Yoo’s scheme to correct the aforementioned security flaws with minimum alteration in the computation cost.

Keywords: Authentication, Cryptography, Impersonation attack, Password guessing attack, Security, Smart card

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #10, pp. 94-103

Title of the Paper: A Formalism of the Competency-Based Approach in Adaptive Learning Systems

Authors: Meriem Hnida, Mohammed Khalidi Idrissi, Samir Bennani

Abstract: The notion of competence and learner model is the kernel of the Competency-Based Approach (CBA). However, as of today there is not a commonly learner model or ontology for competencies, we have presented in this paper our ontology-based representation in order to define the CBA. This representation provides a baseline for an e-learning adaptive system in which we plan to implement individual learning through individualized learning paths and collaborative learning considering individuals as part of homogeneous groups.

Keywords: Individualization, Ontology, Competency-Based Approach, Adaptation, Student modeling, Competency modeling

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #9, pp. 83-93

Title of the Paper: Performance Analysis of Feature Extraction and Selection of Region of Interest by Segmentation in Mammogram Images between the Existing Meta-heuristic Algorithms and Monkey Search Optimization (MSO)

Authors: S. Kanimozhi Suguna, S. Uma Maheswari

Abstract: In medical image processing, feature selection and extraction is an important task for performing image classification and recognition which is performed through the image segmentation process. This paper proposes a different approach; Monkey Search Optimization (MSO) which is based on Metaheuristic Algorithm is presented for selecting region of interest in mammogram image. Monkey Search Optimization (MSO) algorithm is considered as a new algorithm searching for optimum solution based on the foraging behavior of monkeys. Pectoral region removed image is given as input for feature extraction. The proposed algorithm can be implemented for various applications as the time consumption for the process is reduced greatly. In this paper the proposed algorithm is compared with few other meta-heuristics algorithms such as Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Artificial Bee Colony Optimization (ABC) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO); from the results that the proposed approach can be considered to be an appropriate algorithm for image segmentation. Results are presented based on simulation made with the implementation in MATLAB which is tested on the images of MIAS database.

Keywords: MSO, ACO, ABC, PSO, Climb, Watch – Jump and Co-operation

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #8, pp. 72-82

Title of the Paper: Regional Approach for Iris Recognition

Authors: Donato Impedovo, Giuseppe Pirlo, Lorenzo Scianatico

Abstract: Recent studies have explored a various set of techniques, methods and algorithms for iris recognition. Segmentation algorithms, normalization processes and well-defined distances measures are employed as decision methods to compose the outline of all currently deployed systems, including commercial ones. So far, all systems make use of the entire iris pattern of any individual, assuming that a fixed threshold applied on the distance can partially avoid problems like noise of information and acquisition errors. In this paper a new approach is presented that uses only selected sectors of the iris and a simple analysis strategy, for verification purposed. Therefore, it differs from all previous approaches that process the entire iris pattern. In addition, three Bayes-based similarity measures have been considered for iris image matching: the Whitened Cosine (WC), the PRM Whitened Cosine Transform (PWC) and the Whitin-class Whitened Cosine Transform (WWC). The experimental results, carried out using the CASIA database, are encouraging and demonstrate that the proposed approach supports several directions for further research.

Keywords: Biometrics, Iris, Recognition, Biometrics, Ssim, Regional Analysis

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #7, pp.61-71

Title of the Paper: Replacing Log-Based Profiles to Context Profiles and Its Application to Context-aware Document Clustering

Authors: Yusuke Hosoi, Yuta Taniguchi, Daisuke Ikeda

Abstract: As the number of documents is increasing rapidly, personalization is becoming more and more important to find desired documents efficiently. In typical personalization frameworks, a user profile created by its histories is necessary but it may include different contexts even for one user. In this paper, we develop a framework of personalization for information retrieval in various contexts. The main idea of this paper is twofold: firstly we use a vector as a generalized profile, called a context profile, of a user, a context, or a segment, and secondly we use corpora instead of user histories. This means that we can create a profile for a context at low cost and choose it according to contexts. Moreover, we can easily obtain virtual profiles from created profiles since profiles are just vectors. To evaluate the proposed framework, we have created many context profiles from a popular cor- pus, adjusted usual document vectors to contexts, and compared to adjusted document vectors and original ones. Effectiveness of adjusted documents are also confirmed by document clustering which creates different clusters according to contexts.

Keywords: Information retrieval, Vector space model, Context-aware, Personalization, User profile, Term weighting, Document clustering

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #6, pp.51-60

Title of the Paper: An Open and Platfom-Independent Instruction-Set Simulator for Teaching Computer Architecture

Authors: Vincenzo Catania, Davide Patti, Maurizio Palesi, Andrea Spadaccini, Fabrizio Fazzino

Abstract: Instruction-set Simulators (ISS) are commonly used in any computer architecture course as primary tools for supporting the teaching activity. Although there are several simulation platforms for educational purposes, the lack of an unified and integrated platform often forces educators to use a range of heterogeneous tools to cover the different topics of the syllabus. This paper presents EduMIPS64 a free, visual, and platform-independent MIPS64 Instruction-Set Simulator designed as a learning aid for topics like instruction pipelining, hazard detection and resolution, exception handling, interrupts, and memory hierarchies. Its dual execution mode – stand-alone application and web applet – allows for inclusion in distance learning courses.

Keywords: Instruction-set Simulator, Graphic User Interface, MIPS64, Assembly Interpreter, Pipeline, Stall, Hazard, Cache, Delay slot, Exception, Interrupt

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #5, pp.42-50

Title of the Paper: Formal Considerations and a Practical Approach to Intermediate-Level Obfuscation

Authors: Dmitriy Dunaev, László Lengyel

Abstract: The essence of obfuscation is to entangle the code and eliminate the majority of logical links in it. The offered theoretical apparatus allows describing obfuscated routines by concatenation of original and fake operational logics. This approach considers not only instructions or routines themselves, but the actions (results) they produce, what makes obfuscation a process of adding excessive functionality. The mathematical apparatus presented in the paper, discusses introductory terms, definitions, operations, and formulates a proposition about NP-completeness of a special deobfuscation problem. We formulate the problem statement and prove that the significance of operational logic in the obfuscated routine is an NP-complete problem. We point out the applicability limits of this proposition, and offer a practical approach that can noticeably reduce the probability of having a deobfuscator running in polynomial time. This paper also offers recommendations for constructing obfuscating transformations and points out a practical approach to creation of intermediate-level obfuscating algorithm.

Keywords: Obfuscation, operational logic, global context, NP-completeness, intermediate representation

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #4, pp.32-41

Title of the Paper: A Collision Detection Algorithm Based On Improved Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Yuanhua Wang, Qiang Zhang, Dongsheng Zhou

Abstract: In the field of virtual reality, Collision Detection Technology was widely developed for improving the performance of 3D Graphics. Following rapid growth of virtual objects with complex shapes, conventional methods perform harder to effectively detect the collision. Facing the problem, we presented a collision detection algorithm based on improved quantum particle swarm optimization. Firstly, we converted the collision detection problem into nonlinear constrained optimization problem. Secondly, we employed the Euclidean distance to evaluate whether there was collision between two objects. Then, we improved the quantum particle swarm optimization (QPSO) algorithm by (1) using quantum gate and quantum rotation gate in changing quantum probability amplitude, (2) changing the mutation operator with Quantum Hadamard Gate and (3) modifying constant Inertia Weight to random inertia weight. In the end, the results of numerical simulation and analysis were provided to verify the validity of our algorithm.

Keywords: Collision Detection; Quantum Rotation Gate; Quantum Hadamard Gate; Quantum Gate

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #3, pp.24-31

Title of the Paper: A Self-Powered Bluetooth Network for Intelligent Traffic Light Junction Management

Authors: Mario Collotta, Antonio Messineo, Giuseppina Nicolosi, Giovanni Pau

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are increasingly used in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) applications, especially in dynamic management of signalized intersections. This paper proposes a Bluetooth network architecture in order to monitor vehicular traffic flows near to a traffic light. The proposed architecture is characterized by a novel algorithm in order to determine green times and phase sequences of traffic lights, based on measured values of traffic flows. It is known that the wireless sensor networks are characterized by very low power devices, so the continuous information transmission reduces the life cycle of the whole network. To this end, the proposed architecture, provides a technique to power the sensor nodes based on piezoelectric materials which allow to produce potential energy taking advantage of the vibration produced by the passage of vehicles on the road.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Intelligent Transportation System, Traffic Lights, Queues Management, Piezoelectric materials

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #2, pp.12-23

Title of the Paper: A Cooperative Multilayer End-Point Approach to Mitigate DDoS Attack

Authors: S. Renuka Devi, S. Saraswathi, P. Yogesh

Abstract: DDoS attacks constitute one of the major intimidating hardest security problems facing today's Internet. The goal is to flood the victim with overwhelming amounts of traffic, with the purpose of preventing legitimate users from using a victim computing system or network resources. Irrespective of the security features incorporated in the victim system, the acceptable level of security depends on the state of security in the rest of the global Internet. To enhance the overall security against DDoS attack, a cooperative defense mechanism will be the constructive solution. This paper proposes one such effective cooperative multilayer defense mechanism. Unlike other existing systems, our system is capable of handling various forms of DoS attacks. Providing mitigation either at source end or at victim end may not be a complete solution in contrast, our multilayer mitigation is active at both ends . The spoofing and high rate flooding attacks are limited at the source end by implementing comprehensive approach at the network layer and low rate flooding attack at the victim end by implementing Similarity based mechanism at the application layer simultaneously. The performance of the multilayer defense mechanism is validated through extensive simulation in NS-2. The real data sets are used for our analysis and the experimental results show that our scheme can efficiently detect DDoS.

Keywords: Flooding, Multilayer, Security, Spoofing, Access control, Network layer, Application layer

WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-0832 / 2224-3402, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #1, pp.1-11