WSEAS Transactions on
Biology and Biomedicine

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Print ISSN: 1109-9518
E-ISSN: 2224-2902

Volume 11, 2014

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of WSEAS Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

Volume 11, 2014

Title of the Paper: Injury Evaluation in Teenage Cyclist-Vehicle Crash by Multibody Simulation

Authors: Filippo Carollo, Gabriele Virzi’ Mariotti, Edoardo Scalici

Abstract: Information on impact locations, impact situations and cyclist and pedestrian dynamics in impacts with passenger cars is fundamental for the development of effective solutions to improve cyclist and pedestrian protection. Accidentology research shows that cyclists typically have a higher impact location than the pedestrian, with a larger share of injuries from the windscreen area. Majority of accidents in Palermo, in the last years, happens at urban street (84%) that involve teenager (6.4%). In this paper simulation study captures dynamics and injuries to head and chest for teenager between a generic bicycle and a car model that is suitable for pedestrian or cyclist safety. Multibody simulation of the crash is executed by making use of Visual Nastran. Dummy, car and bicycle are those used in previous works. The attention is on a teenage cyclist, because the data on this scope are found in literature with difficulty. Twelve full-scale crash tests (passenger car versus cyclist) have as main parameters: vehicle speed (20, 30, 40 and 50 km/h), with three different positions of the cyclist respect to the vehicle: frontal, side and rear. Head impact location (top of bonnet, windscreen), given by crash test, shows that cyclist protection should be higher in the windscreen area than pedestrian countermeasures. In particular the injury of the head is analyzed using the parameter HIC and the chest injury is analyzed by 3 ms criterion; the likelihood AIS 4+ is calculated, concluding that head injury is more dangerous in the case of teenage pedestrian, while chest injury is more dangerous in the case of the teenage cyclist; moreover he has greater possibility of survival than the adult cyclist. Accidentology, simulation and crash test show that the windscreen is a frequent head and chest impact location.

Keywords: Accidentology, teenage bicyclist, vehicle impact, severe (AIS4+) injury, HIC, 3ms criterion

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #26, pp. 203-217

Title of the Paper: On Application of Entropy Characteristics to Texture Analysis

Authors: Natalia Ampilova, Igor Soloviev

Abstract: A method of texture analysis based on using the Kullback-Leibler divergence is discussed. A digital image is described by a discrete probability distribution. We consider a group of direct multifractal transforms relating to the distribution and for two given images calculate a vector of Kullback-Leibler divergences between the initial distributions and their direct multifractal transforms. The method is illustrated on the example of the Serpinsky carpet. Numerical experiments were performed for the Brodatz textures and for two classes of biomedical preparation images — healthy kidney and kidney with chronic pyelonephritis. In each class divergence vectors between pairs of images are calculated and then the average divergence vector is formed. This vector is considered as a classification sign for the class. The experiments were performed both in gray scale and HSV palette (component wise) and showed that for different classes average divergence vectors are substantially different in each color component. The method may be successfully applied for classification of biomedical preparation images.

Keywords: Direct multifractal transform, discrete probability distribution, Kullback-Leibler divergence, texture analysis

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #25, pp. 194-202

Title of the Paper: Bone Segmentation in CT-Liver Images Using K-Means Clustering for 3D Rib Cage Surface-Modeling

Authors: Walita Narkbuakaew, Hiroshi Nagahashi, Kota Aoki, Yoshiki Kubota

Abstract: A 3D rib cage model helps to study anatomical structures in some medical applications such as biomechanical and surgical operations. Its quality directly depends on rib cage segmentation if it is reconstructed from image data. This paper presents an optional segmentation method based on K-means clustering. It uses a hierarchical concept to control the clustering, and it organizes clustered regions in subsequent indexes of background, soft-tissue, and hard-tissue regions. We applied the proposed method to 3D CT-liver images acquired by a 4D-CT imaging system. The proposed method was compared with 2D K-means (KM) and 2D fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering. From our experiment, the proposed method gave more stable clustering results under a condition of randomization in initial cluster-centers, and it performed faster than 1.5 times of 2D-KM and 7.7 times of 2D-FCM on average. For 3D surface models, the results of the proposed method provided more information of bone regions in vertebra, ribs, and scapula areas than results of 2D-KM and 2D-FCM.

Keywords: 2D K-mean clustering, 2D fuzzy C-mean clustering, rib cage segmentation

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #24, pp. 183-193

Title of the Paper: Coupled Oscillators Energy Exchange Model Applied for the EEG Spectral Modeling and Forecasting

Authors: Darius Plikynas, Darius Kezys

Abstract: This research is driven by the need to find a valid approach for the most difficult problems remaining in the neuroscience – the explanation of the dynamic relationships between different brain regions and the explanation of the partial coherence of EEG signals. In this regard, our paper advocates for the field-theoretical approach, which is able to link experimentally observed human brain local EEG signal dynamics with the proposed coupled oscillator energy exchange model (COEEM). The reasoning behind the proposed COEEM model application is based on an energy exchange and synchronization simulation in a localized brain area using (i) the coupled oscillators approach, (ii) a novel coupled oscillators’ phase-locking mechanism (PLM) and (iii) a unique and very narrow spectral band prognostication and superposition method. Based on the promising forecasting results obtained for the real EEG signals, we infer that the oscillatory model presented here is potentially able to explain the dynamic relationships between different brain regions and the explanation of the partial coherence of EEG signals.

Keywords: coupled oscillators, energy exchange model, Kuramoto model, phase locking

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #23, pp. 174-182

Title of the Paper: Mathematical Analysis of Tumour Invasion with Proliferation Model and Simulations

Authors: Akisato Kubo, Katsutaka Kimura

Abstract: In this paper it is shown that the global existence in time and asymptotic profile of the solution of a mathematical model of tumour invasion with proliferation proposed by Chaplain et al. For this purpose we consider a related nonlinear evolution equation with strong dissipation and proliferation corresponding to our mathematical model and the initial Neumann-boundary value problem for the evolution equation. We prove the global existence in time of solutions to the problem for the nonlinear evolution equation in arbitrary space dimension by the method of energy. In this paper our main mathematical approach is heavily based on energy estimates. Applying our mathematical result of the problem to the tumour invasion model we will discuss the existence and property of solutions to the model which gives us a rigorous mathematical understanding of the model. Finally we will show the time depending relationship and interaction between tumour cells, the tissue and degradation enzymes by computer simulations of the model. It is seen that our mathematical result of the existence and asymptotic behaviour of solutions guarantees the validity of computer simulations and implies the pattern figure of each component of the model respectively.

Keywords: Nonlinear evolution equation, mathematical analysis, tumour invasion, cells proliferation, simulation

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #22, pp. 165-173

Title of the Paper: Pattern Classification of Foot Diseases Using Decision Tree

Authors: Jungkyu Choi, Keun-Hwan Jeon, Yonggwan Won, Jung-Ja Kim

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate significant knowledge from developing the prediction model for pattern classification of foot diseases using decision tree based on clinical data stored in the Foot Clinic. Sample data of 80 patients diagnosed with a single disease in 1267 patients. Dependent variable was composed of 8 diseases. Independent variables were selected with 28 variables in the whole 37 attributes closely related to disease. The whole data was divided into training data and test data, and prediction rate was verified by C5.0, C&RT, QUEST and CHAID algorithm. As the result, the C5.0, the top of prediction rate, is applied for final analysis of disease category. The importance factors related closely with 8 disease were RCSP, right pelvis elevation and pelvis rotation condition. In the case of both pes planus and left pes planus, it were shown same result that left RCSP was higher than right RCSP. However, the left pes planus had possibility to accompany the body unbalance by pelvis rotation and pelvis elevation difference. Pes cavus was always shown if any feet had above 1° for RCSP, and gastro-soleus muscle tightness was appeared if there was pelvis elevation difference with similar RCSP on both foot. In conclusion, we were able to conclude that factor of each node, including RCSP, which formed decision-tree, major diagnosis for distinction lower limbs disease and obtain the 8 diagnosis rules.

Keywords: Biomechanical analysis, Custom-made insole, Pes cavus, Foot pressure, EMG

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #21, pp. 157-164

Title of the Paper: Performance Assessment of Optimized Extreme Learning Machine Based on Evolutionary Computing for Spirometric Data Classification

Authors: Pramila Vijayaraghavan, Mahesh Veezhinathan

Abstract: Spirometry is the frequently performed clinical pulmonary function test to assess the respiratory dynamics. It measures changes in lung volumes and airflows during the forced expiratory maneuver. These investigations are widely used in the diagnosis and management of lung diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However the test requires considerable patient effort and cooperation and is also sometimes prone to misclassification due to interdependency of data. In this work an attempt has been made to differentiate pulmonary obstructive abnormality using neural computing and spirometric data. A fast Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) and evolutionary algorithm based optimized ELM networks are employed for classification and their performance is analyzed. The performance of Extreme Learning Machine (ELM), achieved a generalization accuracy of 91.03% in 0.0019secs. The evolutionary based optimization technique achieved a classification accuracy of 100% yielding a sensitivity and specificity of 100% with a much compact and less complex network. Hence the results indicate that an optimized ELM network is superior in performance but takes longer processing time due to the iterations performed in the optimization of the network weights. Hence it is concluded that the EELM based computerized model is useful in enhancing diagnostic relevance of spirometric investigations and could provide assistance to clinicians in characterizing pulmonary abnormalities.

Keywords: Pulmonary Function Test, Spirometer, COPD, FEV1, Extreme Learning Machine, Evolutionary extreme learning machine, Obstructive lung disease

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #20, pp. 147-156

Title of the Paper: Numerical Simulation Based on Transfer Function Specific to Proliferation of Tumor Cell Lines

Authors: Corina C. Brindusa, Philippe Dondon, Cornelia A. Bulucea

Abstract: Glioblastoma is the most common highest-grade and lethal type of brain tumor, causing a high rate of death each year worldwide. Given the resistance of this tumor to standard surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, the consistent efforts to comprehensively profile glioblastomas using latest technologies are addressing this need. In line with this idea, this paper focuses to enhancing understanding of the potentially useful correlations between medicine field, electrical engineering, mathematical modeling and numerical simulation, as parts of our knowledge about life, Nature and Universe. Analysis of variables specific to a biological system by type of tumor cell populations can be made by analogy with the electric structure of passive quadrupole type. The transfer function is determined directly through a complex electronic structures encompassing a RC (resistor, capacitance) quadrupole + operational amplifier OA. By evaluating in vitro of the cell line GB9B, derived from glioblastoma, (GB), and based on the analysis of residues is determined indirectly, and validates the transfer function. Mathematical model of transfer function type enables to simulate numerical 2D of the expression of the output quantity. The findings of this work supports the belief in the power of science, demonstrating the strong links between the research in medicine field, and the electrical engineering outcomes.

Keywords: cell fraction, electric passive quadrupole, mathematical modeling and numerical simulation, transfer function, tumor cells

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #19, pp. 140-146

Title of the Paper: 3D Coordinate Reconstruction from 2D X-Ray Images for Guided Lung Biopsy

Authors: Q. Rizqie, C. Pahl, D. E. O. Dewi, M. A. Ayob, I. Maolana, R. Hermawan, R. D. Soetikno, E. Supriyanto

Abstract: Biopsy is a diagnosis technique aiming at the detection of cancerous cells by removing a sample of tissue from the body. Advances in imaging systems lead to more precise biopsy results. Nowadays, Computed Tomography (CT) is one of the standard modalities for the purpose of imaging guided biopsy procedures. However, not all clinics and hospitals have access to CT technology, especially those in developing countries. Conventional radiography (X-Ray) has capabilities to be used as an alternative imaging modality for image guided lung biopsy. X-Ray is more accessible since it is low-cost and is characterized by a lower radiation level compared to CT. Two X-Ray images were taken, one from anterior-posterior position and another from lateral position containing the cancerous cells being the target. The task of the physician then is to mark the target in each image so that subsequently the system will transfer the images into a three dimensional (3D) plot. In this 3D plot, the position of the targeted nodule relative to real life position can be measured. Results show that X-Ray guided biopsy is a functioning alternative for lung cancer biopsy.

Keywords: Biopsy, Image Guided Systems, Medical Imaging, X-Ray, 3D Coordinates, 3D Reconstruction

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #18, pp. 133-139

Title of the Paper: Model Based Non-Rigid Registration Framework For High Dynamic Range Mammography

Authors: K. Sujatha, D. Shalini Punithavathani, P. Mary Sowbaghya

Abstract: Mammography screening is the most prominent method for finding breast cancer at an early stage. The acquired mammograms are High Dynamic Range images having a 12 bit gray scale resolution. When viewed by a radiologist, a single image must be examined several times, each time focusing on a different intensity range. So this paper proposes the Computer aided approach for enhancing standard lesions in digital mammograms, where we have developed a Model based Non-rigid Registration Framework (MBNRF) for High Dynamic Range mammogram image enhancement in a fully automatic way. The proposed system considers two views of mammogram images such as MLO (Mediolateral Oblique View) and CC (Craniocaudal) for processing and consists of two parts: 1) Preliminary processing operations involves in use of Contrast limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization technique to remove noise and intensity in homogeneities and 2) Registering the CC (Craniocaudal) model with MLO (Mediolateral Oblique View) mammogram view image by entropy based registration. The algorithm’s performance has been tested on few mammography images in collaboration with radiologists.

Keywords: Image Registration, High Dynamic Range Images, Model based Image registration, Mammogram

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #17, pp. 126-132

Title of the Paper: Posture, Pressure, and Muscle Activation Pattern of Adolescent with Idiopathic Scoliosis in Static and Dynamic Sitting

Authors: Ji-Yong Jung, In-Sik Park, Yonggwan Won, Bong-Ok Kim, Soo-Kyung Bok, Jung-Ja Kim

Abstract: In this study, we evaluated the influence of idiopathic scoliosis on postural balance and muscle activity in static and dynamic sitting condition. Twelve adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis were included in this study. Postural balance and muscle activities of all subjects were assessed under two experimental conditions: i) static sitting, ii) dynamic sitting. In static sitting condition, subjects were instructed to sit the board for 30 seconds. In dynamic sitting condition, subjects performed pelvic anterior, posterior, left, right tilting induced by the structure of the board for 5 seconds, respectively. Inclination angle was measured by accelerometer which was attached to the center of the unstable board. Body pressure distribution pattern (contact area, maximum force, peak pressure, and mean pressure) was analyzed using capacitive seat sensor system. Also, surface electrodes were attached to the thoracic erector spinae, lumbar erector spinae, lumbar multifidus, and external oblique for assessing muscle activity. In comparison with mean inclination angle and pressure distribution between left and right side, postural balance was tilted to the posterior and left side. In addition, erector spinae muscles, especially thoracic erector spinae muscle, of subjects with AIS more increased on right side than left side in dynamic sitting condition. From these results, we confirmed that idiopathic scoliosis cause postural asymmetry, unequal balance, and muscular imbalance in static and dynamic sitting. Furthermore, postural balance measurement system in this study can be utilized to detect asymmetric sitting posture and abnormal muscle activity caused by idiopathic scoliosis.

Keywords: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, postural balance, body pressure, muscle activity, static sitting, dynamic sitting, unstable board

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #16, pp. 118-125

Title of the Paper: Analysis of Pacemaker Performance and Design of a Holistic Pacemaker Monitoring Tele-communication System

Authors: Lavanya Jagannathan, Santhosh Ganesh, T. Sasikala, Mahesh Veezhinathan

Abstract: The role of artificial pacemakers in the rehabilitation of patients with cardiac abnormalities is indispensible. Even after over 75 years of existence, the pacemakers still face a range of issues and faults, thereby causing problems, which are sometimes fatal. An analysis of the reasons for pacemaker failure and its solutions is essential to avoid similar problems in the future. These problems occur due to the parameters going unmonitored, which results in faults being undetected. A system to detect the essential parameters such as the pacing algorithm synchronization, current delivery and battery lifetime will help in the drastic reduction of the problems faced in a pacemaker. This system, along with a GSM telecommunication module can further enhance the performance and quality of the pacemakers over the existing models with short range telemetry and magneto-storage systems. This system is also to be extended into the realm of controlling the pacemaker from outside the body by the same communication system.

Keywords: GSM, LabVIEW, Pacemaker alarm, Synchronous pacing

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #15, pp. 111-117

Title of the Paper: SAR Estimation in Human Head Models Related to TETRA, GSM and UMTS Exposure Using Different Computational Approaches

Authors: Irene Karanasiou

Abstract: The scope of this paper is to calculate the electric field both inside and outside the human head and consequently to estimate the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) when an antenna is placed at its close proximity at TETRA, UMTS and GSM frequencies. The analysis is twofold: a semi-analytical approach based on three-dimensional Green’s function theory is initially implemented whereas a FEM (Finite Element Method) method is used in order to further validate the analysis, by simulating the relevant three-dimensional geometries. Numerical and simulation results are obtained for the local SAR values at different points inside the head when the model of the human head is exposed to the radiation of dipole antennas at 0.4GHz (TETRA), 0.9GHz (GSM), 1.8GHz (GSM) and 2.2GHz (UMTS) placed at a distance of 1 cm, 2cm and 3cm from the head model.

Keywords: mobile phones, GSM, UMTS, TETRA, Specific Absorption Rate, Green’s function, Finite Element Method

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #14, pp. 101-110

Title of the Paper: Human Gastrointestinal Pressure Data Analysis Based on Wavelet Transform

Authors: Li Lu, Guozheng Yan, Kao Zhao, Fei Xu

Abstract: Background Recently with the improvement of people’s living standards, eating fine, irregular life, lack of exercise and increased mental stress, the incidence of constipation is increasing. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract’s pressure information can reflect the dynamic disorder of gastrointestinal physiological and pathological changes, which is important in early diagnosis and treatment of constipation. However, how to diagnose constipation with the wireless capsule is still not clear. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the GI tract’s pressure data and compare the gastrointestinal motility index (MI) and the gastrointestinal transit time (GTT) in healthy subjects and patients with constipation to provide some reference for clinical diagnosis. Methods The sixteen subjects (ten healthy subjects and six patients with constipation) were recruited. Firstly, the large abnormal data caused by cough and electromagnetic noise were filtered by the threshold processing method. Secondly, the high frequency noise caused by breathing and other disturbance was removed by wavelet analysis. The GI tract’s peristalsis wave was extracted. Then the MI and GTT of the sixteen subjects were computed. Key Results The patients with constipation showed significantly higher MI and longer GTT compared with healthy subjects. The results show that the wavelet transform provides a new way to research human gastrointestinal activities.

Keywords: Wavelet Transform, Gastrointestinal transit time, Wireless Capsule, Gastrointestinal Motility Index

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #13, pp. 96-100

Title of the Paper: Feature Extraction of the Lesion in Mammogram Images Using Segmentation by Minimizing the Energy and Orthogonal Transformation Adaptive

Authors: Khalid El Fahssi, Abdelali Elmoufidi, Abdenbi Abenaou, Said Jai-Andaloussi, Abderrahim Sekkaki

Abstract: Segmentation and classification of breast masses in mammography play a crucial role in Computer Aided Diagnosis system (CAD) . In this paper we propose an approach consisting of two methods. The first is the main stage in image processing which is the mammograms segmentation. This method is based on the theory of all levels and minimization of the energy of the active contour which enables the selection of regions of interest of the mammograms images. While the second method is based on the theory of adaptive orthogonal transformation that will calculate the informative characteristics of regions of interest of mammography images. The characteristics obtained by this computing method allow the increase of the diagnostic certainty. To illustrate the effectiveness of the method we present the results of experiments carried out on the basis of images MIAS mammograms.

Keywords: segmentation, mammography, active contours, levels set, classification

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #12, pp. 88-95

Title of the Paper: Interactive and Wearable MIP Recognition Technique Combine Pattern Recognition and Spatial Tracking Based on SPG Sampling

Authors: Zhen Gan, Binbin Fu, Mingchui Dong

Abstract: Health monitoring based on sphygmogram (SPG) intelligent analysis is a promising alternative for cardiovascular diseases pre-diagnosis. Unfortunately for a wearable SPG intelligent analyzer the qualified SPG sampling is a stern challenge due to user wrist’s any movement or incorrect posture (MIP) might result in distorted SPG morphology and analysis failure. Hence, using micro inertial measurement unit (MIMU) and pattern recognition technology in our previous research could solve the problem generally [3]. However, on account of the limitation of MIP database, a more powerful method on the base of MIP pattern recognition, which could recognize any movement of user’s wrist (like paddling geometric graphics) and give machinevoice- guide as man-machine feedback, is desired. In this paper, by using acceleration integral calculation to infer the spatial relative displacement and Kalman filter technology to reduce null-drift effect, user wrist’s any exact MIP and continuous movement trajectory could be detected well. The testing results show that such a technique is valid in reflecting various spatial movements accurately and fast, which provides solid basis for realizing movement control and make it available in any wearable sensor application.

Keywords: CVD, SPG, MIP, pattern recognition, spatial tracking, MIMU

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #11, pp. 82-87

Title of the Paper: Graphical Method to Determine Base Change Locations in Genomic Sequences of Influenza A Virus Using Wavelets

Authors: Shiwani Saini, Lillie Dewan

Abstract: Single base substitutions occur in genomic sequences when a single base gets replaced by another base. These base substitutions are also called point mutations. Mutation detection is important as these are linked to genetic disorders. Several direct and indirect methods are available to detect sequence variation in specific regions of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) sequences. However indirect methods cannot perfectly identify the mutation location in the sequence. Also these methods require mutation confirmation by visual analysis. Thus for automated detection of base substitutions, signal processing methods offer the advantage of simpler, faster and more accurate localisation of point mutations. In this paper, a novel graphical method using wavelet transforms to identify single base changes in H5N1 Influenza A virus has been proposed. The paper discusses the graphical plots of wavelet transformed Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA) nucleotide sequences to identify the locations of base changes.

Keywords: Base substitutions, genomic sequences, wavelet transforms, multiresolution decomposition, Influenza A virus, signal processing

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #10, pp. 70-81

Title of the Paper: Application of Rice Husk to Remove Humic Acid from Aqueous Solutions and Profiting from Waste Leftover

Authors: Mohammed Nsaifabbas, Firas Saeed Abbas

Abstract: Scrutinize to the feasibility of Rice Husk (RH) on the removal of humic acid pollutant from aqueous solutions using different design parameters by adsorption process is carried out. Results show that the higher removal efficiency was 98.24 % for humic acid from aquatic solution and this efficiency was decreased with increasing of initial concentration flow rate and pH while the removal efficiency increased with increasing absorbance material bed height and feeding temperature. One of the method of profiting from it was using as fertilizer for tomato harvest. The results show that the tomato was bloomed and gave greater weight crop. By this way we can possess different benefits which are: remove the humic acid contaminated the water, get rid of agricultural waste (RH), in the same time, and prepared a good and useful fertilizer for tomato harvest.

Keywords: Rice Husk, Humic Acid, Fertilizer, Aqueous Solutions, Adsorption, Residue and Wastewater

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #9, pp. 62-69

Title of the Paper: Effect of Noise on Estimates of Stepwise Changes in Genome DNA Chromosomal Systems

Authors: Jorge Munoz-Minjares, Jesus Cabal-Aragon, Yuriy S. Shmaliy

Abstract: Noise accompanying measurements using the high resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization (HR-CGH) array strongly affects estimates of the copy number variations (CNVs) and results in segmental errors as well as in jitter in the breakpoints. Based on the probabilistic analysis and algorithm designed, we show that jitter in the breakpoints can be well approximated with the discrete skew Laplace distribution if the local signalto- noise ratios (SNRs) exceed unity. Using this distribution, we propose an algorithm for computing the estimate upper and lower bounds. Some measurements and estimates tested using these bounds show that the higher probe resolution is provided the more segmental accuracy can be achieved and that larger segmental SNRs cause smaller jitter in the breakpoints. Estimates of the CNVs combined with the bounds proposed may play a crucial role for medical experts to make decisions about true chromosomal changes and even their existence.

Keywords: Genome copy number, estimate, jitter, breakpoint, error bound

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #8, pp.52-61

Title of the Paper: Cascade Correlation Neural Network Model for Classification of Oral Cancer

Authors: Neha Sharma, Hari Om

Abstract: The rationale of this study is to accurately classify the records of the oral cancer patient on the basis of clinical symptoms, Gross Examination, Predisposing Factor, Histopathology, various tests and treatments. In this paper, Cascade correlation neural network model has been built as it combines together the idea of cascade architecture and learning algorithm together and it is estimated to be at least 10 times faster than standard back-propagation algorithms. The records of 1025 patients described with the help of 35 attributes are analysed to predict the rate of survivability of oral cancer patients. Dataset is divided in two subgroups: training subgroup and test subgroup, in order to verify the network’s ability to diagnose new cases. Performance of the model for its ability to predict is evaluated on the basis of various measures. Classification accuracy of the model is 72.10%, sensitivity is 83.05%, specificity is 64.71%, precision of the model is 61.36%, recall capacity is 83.05%, f-measure value is 0.7058 and area under ROC curve is 0.944. Lift and Gain chart also suggest that cascade correlation neural network is an effective model for predicting oral cancer.

Keywords: Oral Cancer, Data Mining, Artificial Neural Network, Predictive Model, Neural Network, Cascade Correlation Neural Network

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #7, pp.45-51

Title of the Paper: Semi-Automated Classification of the Physiological Condition of the Carotid Artery in 2D Ultrasound Image Sequences

Authors: Hamed Hamid Muhammed, Jimmy C. Azar

Abstract: A novel automated method for the classification of the physiological condition of the carotid artery in 2D ultrasound image sequences is introduced. Unsupervised clustering was applied for the segmentation process in which both spatial and temporal information was utilized. Radial distension is then measured in the inner surface of the vessel wall, and this characteristic signal is extracted to reveal the detailed radial motion of the variable inner part of the vessel wall that is in contact with flowing blood. Characteristic differences in this time signal were noticed among healthy young, healthy elderly and pathological elderly cases. The discrete Fourier transform of the radial distension signal is then computed, and the area subtended by the transform is calculated and utilized as a diagnostic feature. The method was tested successfully and could differentiate among the categories of patients mentioned above. Therefore, this computer-aided method would significantly simplify the task of medical specialists in detecting any defects in the carotid artery and thereby in detecting early cardiovascular symptoms. The significance of the proposed method is that it is intuitive, semi-automatic, reproducible, and significantly reduces the reliance upon subjective measures.

Keywords: Unsupervised clustering, ultrasound image segmentation, k-means algorithm, discrete Fourier transform DFT, carotid artery, radial distension

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #6, pp.35-44

Title of the Paper: A Computer-Aided System for Discriminating Normal from Cancerous Regions in IHC Liver Cancer Tissue Images Using K-means Clustering

Authors: R. M. Chen, Y. J. Wu, S. R. Jhuang, M. H. Hsieh, C. L. Kuo, Y. L. Ma, R. M. Hu, Jeffrey J. P. Tsai

Abstract: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a well established imaging technique that can be exploited to detect whether the target antigen exists in tissue sections or not in order to discriminate between the cancerous and normal regions in a cancer tissue specimen. The intensity of immuno-stained protein in normal and cancerous regions can be compared to detect the gene status in sample tissues. In this paper, we address the problem of identifying the differential expression of marker protein on cancerous and normal regions in an IHC liver cancer tissue image. We present an improved IHC image processing procedure based on nucleus density, intensity of stained protein, and k-means clustering algorithm to develop an automated system for analyzing an IHC image. The proposed system can discriminate between normal and cancerous regions in an IHC image more effectively and display them visually. Furthermore, this system can automatically evaluate the stained protein expressions in the two regions which can help the pathologist to analyze the differential expressions of a marker protein from IHC images. Finally, we evaluated the proposed system on 150 real IHC liver cancer tissue images and compared the results with those obtained using support vector machine (SVM) and a previous work where the average of density of nuclei is used as the threshold to discriminate cancerous from normal regions.

Keywords: Immunohistochemistry, Tissue Image, Nuclei Segmentation, K-means Clustering, Support Vector Machine

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #5, pp.29-34

Title of the Paper: Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy by Extracting Blood Vessels and Exudates Using Retinal Color Fundus Images

Authors: G. S. Annie Grace Vimala, S. Kajamohideen

Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the damage caused by complications of diabetes to the retina. It is one of the leading causes of blindness across the world. Hence, an accurate, premature diagnosis of DR is an essential task because of its potentiality for reducing the number of cases of blindness across the globe. The main objective of our study was to develop a cost-effective computer-aided diagnostic system (CAD) in order to evaluate the performance of the system which automatically classifies images with pathologic features commonly found in DR. This study was performed on 60 South Indian subjects whose age ranged from 50-85 years. For all the subjects, digital images of size 640 x 480 were taken with a CARL ZEISS FF 450 plus Visupac fundus camera. The ground truth results were provided for the presence of pathological conditions such as micro aneurysms, exudates, hemorrhages. An SVM kernel classifier based CAD system was used to report the presence or absence of DR. The next step was the evaluation of the diagnostic capability of the proposed method in order to identify the subjects with DR by means of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy with respect to ground truth results. The proposed system has attained uppermost classification accuracy, reported so far by means of 5-fold cross validation analysis with the average sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values of 91.6%, 90.5% and 91.2% respectively. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the proposed CAD system would be a useful technique for cataloging the subject with DR.

Keywords: Fundus image, blood vessel, image processing, diabetic retinopathy, mathematical morphology, Support Vector Machine

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #4, pp.20-28

Title of the Paper: The Biodiesel Characteristic Of Kepayang Oil (Pangium edule Reinw.)

Authors: Nofiarli, Kasim Anwar, Nurdin Hazli

Abstract: The research was conducted in the Pilot Plant Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture Technology, Andalas University, Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia in October 2008 to February 2009. The research objective was to know biodiesel characteristic of kepayang seed oil. The biodiesel was made in two steps i.e., esterification process and transesterification. Physicochemical characteristic of the biodiesel were yield, viscosity, density, acid number, Iod number, saponification number, gliserol number, and ester content. Biodiesel from kepayang oil toward to viscosity, density, acid number, iod number, soup number, gliserol number, and ester content was full fill ASTM biodiesel quality. The result shown that kepayang biodiesel can be used for diesel engine to substitute the petro diesel.

Keywords: kepayang, biodiesel, esterification, transesterification

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #3, pp.15-19

Title of the Paper: Effects of Long-Term Exposure to RF/MW Radiations on the Expression of mRNA of Stress Proteins in Lycospersicon esculentum

Authors: Marwa Rammal, Fatima Jebai, Hassan Rammal, Wissam H. Joumaa

Abstract: Low levels of RF radiation exposure can modify the protein’s activity by stimulating or inhibiting their expression in cells. The proteinase inhibitor (Pin II) and Lycospersicon esculentum basic leucine Zipper1 (lebZIP1) are two wound-plants genes. The aim of this work is to study the rate of accumulation of pin II and lebZIP1 at the level of messenger RNA after 10 days of electromagnetic waves exposure. Using RT-PCR and RT-qPCR, the results show that Pin II and lebZIP1synthesis change at the level of cDNA. PinII and lebZIP1 surexpression influence the growth and the differentiation and evoke an increase of protein accumulation in the cell.

Keywords: RF radiation, Lycospersicon esculentum, low level exposure non-thermal effect, Real-Time quantitative PCR

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #2, pp.10-14

Title of the Paper: Adaptive Expert System for Digital Hearing Aids Gain Recommendations Using Linear and Non Linear Prescriptive Procedures

Authors: S. Rajkumar, S. Muttan, Balaji Pillai, V. Jaya, S. S. Vignesh

Abstract: The core object of the work is to design and develop an adaptive expert system, which could perform audiological investigations of hearing impaired subjects, to identify the hearing loss level and to recommend the most appropriate gain values for different frequency bands of a digital hearing aid. We have tested 353 subjects in the age group of 18 to 72; of these, 289 were males and 64 were females and a hearing aid was recommended for 159 subjects. These subjects were fitted with a digital hearing aid, with a first fit formula selected based on the audiogram of the subject, from any one of the standard linear and non linear prescriptive procedures. The standard procedures are formulas from the National Acoustic Laboratory (NAL), Prescription Of Gain Output (POGO), and the Desired Sensation Level (DSL). The recommendations were verified for satisfaction among the hearing aid users with the value of the Speech Discrimination Score (SDS); only 28 were satisfied with NAL-R, 25 were satisfied with POGO II, 23 were satisfied with NAL-NL2 and 12 were satisfied with DSL I/O. The unsatisfied subjects obtained satisfaction, by changing the gain value with the expertise of audiologists, stored in the expert system. Based on the suggested gain values and additional data from the expert audiologists, the gain formula could be made distinct for different language and living conditions.

Keywords: Expert system, Speech intelligibility, Hearing threshold, Real ear insertion gain, Hearing aids, Speech discrimination score, Pure tone average

WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / 2224-2902, Volume 11, 2014, Art. #1, pp.1-9