WSEAS Transactions on
Biology and Biomedicine
Print ISSN: 1109-9518
Volume 13, 2016
Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of WSEAS Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.
Volume 13, 2016
Title of the Paper: An Evolutionary Trend Discovery Algorithm Based on Cubic Spline Interpolation
Authors: Zhiqiang Li, Peter Z. Revesz
Abstract: The speed of evolution, measured by the number of mutations over a fixed number of years, varies greatly in various branches of the evolutionary tree. This paper proposes an evolutionary trend discovery algorithm that reveals the distinguishing characteristics of any branch of the evolutionary tree. The evolutionary trend discovery algorithm is designed to work with either fossil-based data or automatically generated data about the age of the internal nodes in the evolutionary tree. The evolutionary trend discovery algorithm estimates the missing age data using cubic spline interpolation. The evolutionary trend discovery algorithm identifies, for example, that human evolution seems to be currently speeding up while the evolution of chickens is slowing down.
Keywords: Common mutations similarity matrix (CMSM), cubic splice interpolation, evolutionary tree, neighbor joining, phylogenetics, UPGMA
WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / E-ISSN: 2224-2902, Volume 13, 2016, Art. #14, pp. 115-123
Title of the Paper: Raman Spectroscopy as a Modern Tool for Lactose Determination
Authors: Martina Buckova, Hana Vaskova, Zuzana Bubelova
Abstract: Digestion of lactose, the milk disaccharide, makes problem to a large number of the population. Therefore, the lactose intolerant individuals are limited in the intake of milk and dairy products. The lactose –free products offers a solution for the diet. Raman spectroscopic analyses were performed for a purpose of rapid assessment of lactose content in bovine milk, lactose-free milk, mixtures of bovine milk and lactose-free milk, and bovine milk with additions of lactose. Based on characteristic vibrations, Raman spectra of lactose, glucose and galactose exhibit enough differences to distinguish the content of lactose in milk. C-O-H bending mode at 1087 cm-1 is used for lactose quantification. Two different substances – phenylalanine contained generally in the milk and crystal violet used as an internal standard, were studied for the evaluation of the spectroscopic data. The content of phenylalanine in samples was verified by IEC. Better accuracy exhibits the phenylalanine normalization. The contents of lactose and more easily digestible monosaccharides - glucose and galactose from the mixtures of milk and lactose-free milk were analysed by HPLC, Raman spectroscopy provided corresponding results. The study shows that Raman spectroscopy is an effective method for the feedback control of lactose.
Keywords: Lactose intolerance, lactose content, lactose-free milk, Raman spectroscopy, milk, phenylalanine, crystal violet, quantitative analysis
WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / E-ISSN: 2224-2902, Volume 13, 2016, Art. #13, pp. 108-114
Title of the Paper: The Influence of the Thermodynamic Stacking Constants of Deoxyribo Dinucleotides in the Prebiotic Origin of tRNAs from Bacteriophage T4
Authors: Nigel Aylward
Abstract: Consistent relative deoxyribose dinucleotide stacking thermodynamic interaction energy data is used to predict the composition and complete characterization of a poly deoxyribose nucleotide. When applied to the tRNAs of Bacteriophage T4 they show that the composition of the eight tRNAs of Bacteriophage T4 is closer to that predicted by the Ising model of polynucleotide stacking interactions for the mononucleotide and dinucleotide composition of the anticodon than for the codon indicating the anticodon may have arisen first. The stacking energy for the corresponding ribose anticodon and codon are higher than for the deoxyribose anticodon and codon. The anticodon and codon may be silenced by the synthetic ribose codon and anticodon. The formation of the codon usually requires the sum of the Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding interactions and the stacking interactions to form the complimentary polynucleotide chain. The strand to be most favourably translated is marginally that which favors the formation of the least stable DNA.RNA duplex. The prebiotic codons could not be fully translated without a chance of error. The stability of the DNA anticodons has enhanced their preservation.
Keywords: Thermodynamic data, base stacking, tRNAs, bacteriophage T4, anticodon, codon
WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / E-ISSN: 2224-2902, Volume 13, 2016, Art. #12, pp. 95-107
Title of the Paper: Voice Recognition Software as a Real Tool During Rehabilitation Processes
Authors: Teresa Gandara-Sambade, Maria Carmen Souto-Suarez, José A. Orosa
Abstract: In the past few years, an increase in the number of illnesses due to incorrect ergonomic working conditions have been observed. In particular, in places of work like computer stations a clear relationship was observed between computer operating habits and pain in the back, arms and hands. In this sense, the illnesses ascribed to these bad working conditions are related with tendon inflammation, medically called tendonitis. Solutions for this illness are inexpensive like, for example, changing to more ergonomic furniture and the massage treatment but it is a temporal solution and the problem will reappear as soon as the treatment ends. In consequence, a realistic solution for this problem narrows down to a different interface between the operator and the computer. Among all the options defined over the past few years, the speech recognition system is one of the most important due to its low cost and its fast training. Dragon Naturally Speaking and Microsoft Word software resources will be tested in a real case study to analyze which are the better innovations that can be employed in everyday working conditions that result in this illness. Results showed its unsuitability to be employed in real life, and the lack of information and training of students in graduate and postgraduate studies about this useful tool. In particular, if we think that in the near future voice recognition will reach a status so as to be applied in a higher percentage of its expected applications, this tool could be of greater interest.
Keywords: voice recognition, tendonitis, software, education, rehabilitation, tool
WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / E-ISSN: 2224-2902, Volume 13, 2016, Art. #11, pp. 88-94
Title of the Paper: Consistent Relative Thermodynamic Data for Hydrogen Bonding and Stacking Interactions of Nucleic Acid Base Derivatives.
Authors: Nigel Aylward
Abstract: An ab initio method is used in a two state model to calculate consistent relative enthalpies and free energies for the stacking of nucleic acid bases in deoxyribose dinucleotides and the Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding interactions between mononucleotides when uncharged and singly charged. Favorable free energy changes are determined for the formation of dimers between mononucleotides by Watson-Crick and stacking interactions. The data is used to compare the free energy changes for the formation of the ten antiparallel dublet deoxyribose nucleotide duplexes with the analogous ten antiparallel dublet ribose nucleotide duplexes. The data is also used to show the predominance of Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding in the formation of the antiparallel triplet deoxyribose nucleotide duplexes and indicate the formation of non Watson-Crick interactions leading to the formation of point mutations such as that found in sickle cell anaemia. The silencing of genes is shown to be viable and the slightly increased stability of the DNA codons and anticodons versus the RNA analogues is established. However, prebiotically the codons and anticodons could not be fully translated without a chance of error. Hybridization of the mRNA triplets with the tRNA triplets is shown to span the entire range of accessible stacking free energies and provide some specificity for the operation of the standard genetic code. The stacking interactions were calculated for the overall enthalpy changes in the ZKE approximation at the HF and MP2 /6-31G* level.
Keywords: Thermodynamic data, base stacking, deoxyribo dinucleotides, duplexes, genetic code
WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / E-ISSN: 2224-2902, Volume 13, 2016, Art. #10, pp. 74-87
Title of the Paper: The Estimation of the m Parameter of the Nakagami Distribution
Authors: Li-Fei Huang, Jen-Jen Lin
Abstract: This paper introduces the Nakagami-m distribution which is usually used to simulate the ultrasound image. The gamma distribution is used to derive the moment estimator and the maximum likelihood estimator because the Nakagami distribution has no moment generation function and too complicate likelihood function. The moment estimator of m is normally distributed with a smaller bias and a larger standard deviation. The second order maximum likelihood estimator of m is also normally distributed with a larger bias and a smaller standard deviation. The confidence interval for the ratio of medians from two independent distributions of Nakagami-m estimators is constructed. The moment estimator provides a quick understanding about the m parameter, while the second order maximum likelihood estimator provides a full understanding about the m parameter.
Keywords: The Nakagami distribution, The moment estimator, The maximum likelihood estimator, The distribution of the Nakagami-m, The ratio of medians
WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / E-ISSN: 2224-2902, Volume 13, 2016, Art. #9, pp. 67-73
Title of the Paper: Some Solutions to a System of Equations Modelled for Viral Dynamics Subsequent to a Liver Transplantation in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B and D
Authors: Jacob Manale
Abstract: Patients who lost livers through cirrhosiss resulting from a Hepatitis virus, are at risk of reinfection after transplantation. Blood processes dynamics are good indicators of this occurring again. In this contribution, we study a mechanistic model, on these blood processes, consisting of a system of ordinary di erential equations. We first obtain simple solution through variation of parameters, by exploiting an error at the core of Euler's ansatz for solving linear ordinary differential equations. Once that is done, we then fully explore the model fully through symmetry analysis. The traditional regular symmetries usually lead to expressions that are impossible to integrate, subsequently forcing the analyst to consider special cases that may not even be practical. Here we modify the symmetries to avert this.
Keywords: Infectious diseases, Ordinary di erential equations, Symmetry analysis, Variation of parameters, Viral dynamics
WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / E-ISSN: 2224-2902, Volume 13, 2016, Art. #8, pp. 52-66
Title of the Paper: Evaluation of D-Glucose Hydrogenation Catalysts Stability in Different Reactor Systems
Authors: V. Doluda, M. Grigorev, V. Matveeva, E. Sulman, M. Sulman, N. Lakina, V. Molchanov, E. V. Rebrov
Abstract: D-glucose catalytic hydrogenation to D-sorbitol can be considered a promising step in cellulose feedstock transformation technology to fuel components and valuable chemicals. Traditionally D-glucose is hydrogenated in bath reactor systems using Ru, Ni, Pd impregnated over different organic and inorganic supports. The samples of ruthenium impregnated in hypercrosslinked polystyrene and activated carbon were tested in D-glucose hydrogenation using butch reactor, shaker type reactor and fix bed reactor system to evaluate catalysts long term stability. Catalysts were characterized by nitrogen physisorption, X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy, hydrogen chemisorption, X-Ray fluorescence analysis. Physicochemical changes of the studied catalysts are shown during catalysts stability investigation. A strong influence of the reactor type on catalysts stability in D-glucose hydrogenation is discussed.
Keywords: glucose, sorbitol, hypercrosslinked polystyrene, Ru, stability
WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / E-ISSN: 2224-2902, Volume 13, 2016, Art. #7, pp. 45-51
Title of the Paper: Stress Analyses Applications on All-Ceramic Crowns with Different Designs
Authors: Liliana Porojan, Florin Topal, Sorin Porojan
Abstract: Different studies available in literature regarding the analysis of all-ceramic restorations failures, investigated several parameters involved on the tooth structure - restoration complex, in order to improve clinical performances. Some of the parameters, like the framework design, are technique-sensitive during the manufacturing of the restorations and can easily influence the failure rates and fracture modes of final restorations. The goal of this study was to investigate the stress distributions of zirconia - all ceramic crowns with different designs, using varied stress distribution analyses. A static structural analysis was performed. Equivalent stresses were recorded in the tooth structures and in the restoration for all designs. Since ceramic materials exhibit brittle behavior, the first principal stress criterion was adopted to compare the stress values and distribution with those obtained for the first simulations. Under the same loading conditions, the stress distribution patterns for the zirconia all-ceramic crown using differential stress analyses exhibited similarities. The stress values are lower for the maximal principal stresses in all cases. The present study suggests that varied simulation methods are promising to assess the biomechanical behaviour of all-ceramic systems and first principal stress criterion is an alternative for ceramic materials investigations.
Keywords: zirconia framework, ceramic veneer, crown, molar, simulation methods, finite element analysis, stresses
WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / E-ISSN: 2224-2902, Volume 13, 2016, Art. #6, pp. 40-44
Title of the Paper: Managing a Dual-Task During a Virtual Shopping in Patients with Early Dementia
Authors: Francesca Morganti, Elena Minelli
Abstract: Neuropsychological assessment of executive functions with paper and pencil tests is particularly sensitive to the lack of ecological validity especially if the purpose of the clinician is not to get a merely theoretical measure, but to assess the deficit impact on patient’s life. The classical ecological measure provided by the direct observation of the patient in his daily life can be more informative even if this practice can be unsafe for patients and difficult to implement. In order to maintain an enactive cognition perspective on the study of cognitive functions, in which the role of interaction between the embodied behaviors and the affordances provided in the coupling with the environment have a fundamental role, we introduced an ecologically like situation by means of virtual reality. This paper presents a virtual reality test, set in the scene of a supermarket that can be a valid tool to assess executive functions in dementia. The results show that the test has convergent validity, compared to the Mini Mental State Evaluation and Tower of London tests and discriminant validity in identifying the degenerative disease, compared to healthy subjects matched for age, sex and education.
Keywords: Dual-Task, Virtual Reality, Dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, Clinical Neuropsychology Embodiment, Executive Functions
WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / E-ISSN: 2224-2902, Volume 13, 2016, Art. #5, pp. 33-39
Title of the Paper: Use of Information Parameters as Criterion for Determination of Biological Activity of Tissue Preparations
Authors: David A. Areshidze, Lyudmila D. Timchenko, Igor V. Rzhepakovsky, Maria A. Kozlova, Ivan A. Syomin
Abstract: Possibility of use of the information parameters characterizing adaptational and regenerative opportunities of organ as potential criteria of an assessment of biological activity of tissue preparations is investigated in this research. Influence of tissue preparation «STEMB» on a morphofunctional condition of a liver of rats at experimental toxic damage of organ was studied. The assessment of a morphofunctional condition of a liver under the influence of a preparation was carried out as with use of traditional morphological, biochemical and histologic parameters, and by means of information parameters. As a result of research it is established that hepa-toprotective activity of preparation «STEMB» is confirmed both with results of traditional techniques of an assessment, and with informational parameters, that allows to draw a conclusion on possibility of use of information parameters as criterion of an assessment of biological activity of tissue preparations.
Keywords: liver, tissue preparation, biological activity, entropy
WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / E-ISSN: 2224-2902, Volume 13, 2016, Art. #4, pp. 22-32
Title of the Paper: Application of Fractal and Multifractal Analysis Algorithms to Image Segmentation and Classification
Authors: Natalia Ampilova, Igor Soloviev
Abstract: Segmentation is one of image processing methods that results in partitioning a digital image into multiple parts (segments). This method may be used as a step in image analysis or may be considered as a single task. Segmentation is used to analyze medical images, faces, images of the Earth surface and many others. For complex structured images researchers in increasing frequency have to elaborate new methods of segmentation. In particular the application of classical segmentation methods to high resolution images often is not very successful, and fractal and multifractal methods seems to be more preferable, because they are more sensitive to pixel intensity changes. In this work we consider two methods of segmentation: calculation of fractal signatures for the elements of a partition of the surface formed by the image grey level function, and the method of multifractal spectrum calculation based on using density function. The both methods result in obtaining a set of numerical characteristics that may be used as classification and segmentation signs. The both methods show reliable results for images from Brodatz album and high resolution medical images of various types.
Keywords: Fractal dimensions, fractal signature, multifractal spectrum, image segmentation and classification, density function, level sets
WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / E-ISSN: 2224-2902, Volume 13, 2016, Art. #3, pp. 14-21
Title of the Paper: Climate Effects on Human Health and Health Policy
Authors: Kang Sunjoo
Abstract: This study analyzed policies related to healthcare that are affected by climate change in Korea. The Asia region is suffering from many health problems, such as vector-borne diseases, water-borne diseases, and rodent-borne diseases because it is exposed to more natural disasters than any other region in the world. Implementing a surveillance system nationally can alleviate these problems, supporting capacity-building for new kinds of diseases emerging in developing countries in an effort to attain sustainable development goals.
Keywords: national policy, foreign policy, climate change, health effects
WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / E-ISSN: 2224-2902, Volume 13, 2016, Art. #2, pp. 9-13
Title of the Paper: Automatic Diagnosis and Classification of Abnormalities in Digital X-ray Mammograms
Authors: Abdelali Elmoufid, Khalid El Fahssi, Said Jai-andaloussi, Abderrahim Sekkaki, Gwenole Quellec, Mathieu Lamard, Guy Cazuguel
Abstract: Mammography remains the most effective tool for the early detection of breast cancer and Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) is usually used as a second opinion by the radiologists. The main objective of our study is to introduce a method to generate and select the features of suspicious lesions in mammograms and classifying them by using support vector machine, in order to build a CADx system to discriminate between malignant and benign parenchyma. Our method has been verified with the well-known Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) database and we have used the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) to measure the performance of our method. The experimental results show that our method achieved an overall classification accuracy of 96.36%, with 96.77% sensitivity and 95.83% specificity in the training phase and achieved an overall classification accuracy of 94.29%, with 94.11% sensitivity and 94.44% specificity in the testing phase.
Keywords: Mammography, Breast, Computer Aided Diagnosis, Support Vector Machine, ROC analysis
WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9518 / E-ISSN: 2224-2902, Volume 13, 2016, Art. #1, pp. 1-8